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Israel Past & Present
Israel Past & Present
After World War II, Jewish refugees moved to Palestine to escape the countries which had persecuted them for years. The Israelis met conflict while re-settling in Palestine. The Palestinians felt as though the Israelis were unjustly staking claims on Palestinian lands. The Israelis felt as though they had rights bestowed by God to Palestinian lands. Israelis also argued the fact that the Palestinians as a group never really had a homeland. These conflicting points of view quickly sparked a fire which ignited a long and bitter war between the Palestinians and the Israelis.
During this time period, Palestine was a British governed territory. When the fighting between the two sides escalated, Britain relinquished control of Palestine to the United Nations, fearing involvement in the strife. Once in control of Palestine, the United Nations partitioned the area now called Israel into random sections of Palestinian and Israeli controls.
As the fighting continued to heat up, the United States came to the aid of the Israeli cause; partially as repayment for United States inaction during World War II. Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and the Palestinians teamed up to push the Israelis out of Palestine and to regain control of Israel for the Palestinians. With five to one odds, Israel stood up to the offensive attack and defeated the offensive forces with the help of United States military supplies. Besides winning the battle, Israel also gained control of entire country of Israel as a result of the five to one odds war. In 1956, Egypt planned to invade Israel; however Israel struck Egypt first and easily defeated their offensive. In 1967, Egypt, Syria, and Jordan banded together to invade Israel. This offensive has come to be called the six days war. Israel once again defeats the offensives and took the Gaza Strip (Egypt) and the West Bank. (Jordan). As a result of the six days war, Egypt gained the Golan Heights. In 1973, Egypt and Syria attack Israel during Yom Kippur; Israel is once again victorious and gains the ever important Sinai Peninsula from Egypt. This war has come to be called the Yom Kippur War.
After much conflict, the warring countries decided on trying to establish a peace agreement between the countries. In 1979, the Camp David Accords were held and the first middle-eastern peace treaty was signed by Egypt and Israel. Egypt agreed to recognize Israel as a country and Israel agreed to relinquish control of the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt. Shortly hereafter, Sadat, the Egyptian Prime Minister, was assassinated by an Egyptian extremist. The concept of peace did not take well with the Arab peoples, they did not want peace; they wanted revenge and justice at any or all costs. In 1995, another peace treaty was signed between Israeli leader, Rabin, and Palestinian leader, Arafat. Once again, extremist groups took poorly to this concept and shortly hereafter, Rabin was assassinated.
Many other conflicts took place hereafter in Middle-Eastern history, such as the Persian Gulf War, where Iraq invaded Kuwait and ultimately drew in United States forces to defend Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Other US operations stemmed from the Persian Gulf War, such as Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm.
Todays conflict in the middle east is very much interconnected to the past conflicts which have blanketed the dismal history of these middle-eastern countries. Instead of all out warfare, modern Israeli and Palestinian extremists have chosen acts of terrorism in populated areas to pose their positions and opinions on the current land conflicts. Many extremists have resorted to suicide bombings and car bombs. Although cowardly, these acts of terrorism are broadcast throughout the world and help to spread the terrorists messages and opinions.
The Palestinians now want full sovereignty over all of the West Bank and Gaza Strip areas which were lost in the 1967 war. This is a possible concept considering the 1979 peace treaty in which Israel relinquished control of the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
Both Palestinians and Israelis want control of the city of Jerusalem, where both Muslim and Jewish holy places literally sit among each other. Looking back to the Camp David Accords, little was decided in this area of conflict due to the close ... more
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Sir William Wallace
The Help of Sir William Wallace
Sir William Wallace is one of Scotlands greatest generals and was a great help towards the freedom of Scotland because he brought patriotism to the minds of his fellow Scotsmen in order fight for the freedom for which was nearly taken away by the their English neighbors. He would ride through Scotland gathering clans both from the high and lowlands. Over the years after his death, Scots have proclaimed Sir William Wallace as their countries hero and the man who made freedom run through the blood of so many who were by his side.
Hundreds of years before the time of Sir William Wallace, Roman troops tried to conquer parts of Scotland but failed. The savagery of the Scots put the fear in the Romans and caused them to build Hadrians Wall. The wall separated Scotland and England (which was part of the Roman Empire). When the great empire fell to destruction by many Germanic tribes, Scots began to live a more peaceful life. During the Norman conquest of 1066, a group of people called the Normans invaded England, killed many Anglo-Saxon and Celtic tribes, and took over the country. England was now under Norman rule and would stay that way. (Comptons Home Encyclopedia CD Rom)
In 1296, English troops invaded the lowlands of Scotland burning villages, killing innocent Scots, and trying to over rule the vast countrysides of the lowlands and the highlands. The new ruler of England, King Edward I the Long Shanks, started all this.
He believed that he should have control of the whole island itself. His idea about conquering Scotland was that if he cant beat them out, then he could breed them out. He brought the old English custom called Prima Noctes; if a woman is married in the country of Scotland, an English lord has every right to take her away from her husband for a few days and have his ways with her. Clans of lowlanders came together to form an army. It took awhile for the highlanders to know about this. Conflicts brook out between the Scottish rebels and English troops. Bows and arrows and other combat weapons were taken from the Scots except for their swords and axes. (Comptons Home Encyclopedia CD Rom)
The answer to Scotlands problems came with the birth of William Wallace. His exact date of birth is unknown but he was born in the 1270s. As a young man, he quickly became educated by having his father, Malcolm Wallace, deciding for William to move to France with his uncle to have a better education. At the age of 18, Wallace moved back to Scotland hoping to see his father and two brothers (Malcolm Jr. and John). The hope of his would come to an end when he found out that his father and brothers were killed in battle during a revolt in Southern Scotland. Anger immerged in the young Scotsman. In the movie Braveheart, he had vengeance towards the English for the death of his wife, but that was all false. He was never married. (Battle of the Clans on the History Channel)
At a bar (Town unknown) an English man started to insult Wallace causing the frustrating young man to kill him. He was an outlaw after the incident. Wallace became revengeful to the English and traveled from town to town, village to village gathering a
band of followers and clans from both the highlands and the lowlands. They began the struggle against the English rule of Edward I. Gradually the number of Wallaces followers grew, as they all headed farther south from the highlands to fight the massive English army. (Battle of the Clans on the History Channel)
September. 11, 1297, William Wallace and his army full of clans marched to attack English troops at Stirling. They charged over the bridge leading to the city and clashed against the enemys forces. Bloody it was, but it paid off. They defeated and almost destroyed the English army at Stirling, and drove the enemy entirely out of Scotland. This devastated and brought fear in the whole northern part of England. As a reward for his victory, patriotism, and courage, Wallace became knighted and ... more
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