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female mammal Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering: A leap in to the future or a leap towards destruction?
Introduction
Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history has science be able to so deeply affect our lives as genetic engineering will undoubtedly do. With the birth of this new technology, scientific extremists and anti-technologists have risen in arms to block its budding future. Spreading fear by misinterpretation of facts, they promote their hidden agendas in the halls of the United States congress. They fear that it is unsafe; however, genetic engineering is a safe and powerful tool that will yield unprecedented results, specifically in the field of medicine. It will usher in a world where gene defects, bacterial disease, and even aging are a thing of the past. By understanding genetic engineering and its history, discovering its possibilities, and answering the moral and safety questions it brings forth, the blanket of fear covering this remarkable technical miracle can be lifted.
The first step to understanding genetic engineering and embracing its possibilities for society is to obtain a rough knowledge base of its history and method. The basis for altering the evolutionary process is dependant on the understanding of how individuals pass on characteristics to their offspring. Genetics achieved its first foothold on the secrets of nature's evolutionary process when an Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel developed the first laws of heredity. Using these laws, scientists studied the characteristics of organisms for most of the next one hundred years following Mendel's discovery. These early studies concluded that each organism has two sets of character determinants, or genes (Stableford 16). For instance, in regards to eye color, a child could receive one set of genes from his or her father that were encoded one blue, and the other brown. The same child could also receive two brown genes from his or her mother. The conclusion for this inheritance would be the child has a three in four chance of having brown eyes, and a one in three chance of having blue eyes (Stableford 16).
Genes are transmitted through chromosomes which reside in the nucleus of every living organism's cells. Each chromosome is made up of fine strands of deoxyribonucleic acids, or DNA. The information carried on the DNA determines the cells function within the organism.
Sex cells are the only cells that contain a complete DNA map of the organism, therefore, the structure of a DNA molecule or combination of DNA molecules determines the shape, form, and function of the [organism's] offspring  (Lewin 1). DNA discovery is attributed to the research of three scientists, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and James Dewey Watson in 1951. They were all later accredited with the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine in 1962 (Lewin 1).
The new science of genetic engineering aims to take a dramatic short cut in the slow process of evolution (Stableford 25). In essence, scientists aim to remove one gene from an organism's DNA, and place it into the DNA of another organism. This would create a new DNA strand, full of new encoded instructions; a strand that would have taken Mother Nature millions of years of natural selection to develop. Isolating and removing a desired gene from a DNA strand involves many different tools. DNA can be broken up by exposing it to ultra-highfrequency sound waves, but this is an extremely inaccurate way of isolating a desirable DNA section (Stableford 26). A more accurate way of DNA splicing is the use of restriction enzymes, which are produced by various species of bacteria (Clarke 1). The restriction enzymes cut the DNA strand at a particular location called a nucleotide base, which makes up a DNA molecule. Now that the desired portion of the DNA is cut out, it can be joined to anothe strand of DNA by using enzymes called ligases. The final important step in the creation of a new DNA strand ... more

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Aggression And Its Intricacies

Aggression is a critical part of animal existence, which is an inherent driving
force to humans, as we, too, are animals. The source of aggression within humans
is a long summative list, but before trying to understand its source one must
apply a working definition of aggression. Aggressive behavior is defined by
Encyclopedia Britannica as any action of an animal that serves to injure an
opponent or prey animal or to cause an opponent to retreat. (7) David G. Myers
states that aggression is any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or
destroy.(9) There are many types of aggressive behaviors, which can be
differentiated from the factual act to the hidden motives. For example, an
aggressive behavior can be negative or positive, accidental or intended, and
physical or mental. Aggression can take numerous forms, the act of hitting a
wall to release aggression has some of the same roots as playing football and
enjoying hitting the quarterback. A child yelling at his parents could be
equated, in its aggressiveness, with hitting one▓s horn when one is cut
off on 495. Aggression is also a relative construct. What might seem like a
terribly aggressive act to one person, most often the victim, might seem like an
induced response to the perpetrator.(3) Psychologist Arlene Stillwell performed
an experiment where she assigned ordinary college students at random to play the
role of a victim or a perpetrator in a small incident. Then she asked the
students to describe the situation that had just transpired. What she found was
that both victims and perpetrators deformed the truth equally to present their
sides in a better light. Victims would dwell on their lasting traumas from the
incident while the perpetrator might make the act seem like a one-time action
provoked by insurmountable circumstances. The resulting implication is that
aggression is in the eye of the beholder.(3) Due to its relative nature
aggression is extremely hard to isolate and study. Some acts are very easy to
categorize as aggressive, a first degree murder or first degree rape, but is
negligent manslaughter aggressive? The mere act of not shoveling one▓s
sidewalk might have the same effect as a cold-blooded murder but is it an
aggressive act? For the purposes of this paper aggression will be related to the
four conditions presented by Gerda Siann. They are as follows; 1. The person
carrying out that behavior, the aggressor, does so with intention. 2. The
behavior is taking place within an interpersonal situation which is
characterized by an accumulated distress or a opposition. 3. The aggressor
intends by the behavior in question to gain a greater advantage than the person
on the other side of the aggression. 4. The aggressor carrying out the behavior
has either provoked the situation or moved the conflict unto a higher degree of
strength.(11) Aggression has numerous reasons and consequences both must be
analyzed in order to see from whence it arises. An explicit example of the
strength of both nature and nurture concerning aggression is the life of Kody
Scott, a young gang member of California. He was already a gang member in middle
school, and would not have been had the gang not already been in place when he
graduated from elementary school √ thus environment▓s role in
aggressive behavior, but one fateful day when he stole a car to get to the
hospital for the birth of his first child, he intentionally detoured through the
neighborhood of a rival gang and killed a rival gang member. The detour he
deliberately took was a conscious decision and not provoked by the environment
√ hence nature▓s toll on his aggressive act.(3) Aggression is
usually associated with negative aspects of the world.(3) This is not
necessarily true, though. Negativity is but half of the nature of aggression.
Aggression can have very positive results. For example, a non-aggressive hockey
player gets thrown around and will therefore not perform very well in an
bellicose sport. On the other hand an aggressive player will not allow himself
to be thrown around like the aforementioned player and will most likely win the
small battles just based on the mentality of the player.(5) Another example of
positive aspects of aggression might be a person▓s sexual aggressiveness
might allow them to obtain a date to prom without any problem, whereas anyone
much less aggressive person would be passive and wait for the person to approach
them. One good aspects of aggressiveness might be ambitiousness or
assertiveness, an aggressive person is more likely to get what they ... more

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  • Genetic Engineering: A Leap In To The Future Or A Genetic Engineering: A Leap In To The Future Or A Genetic Engineering: A Leap In To The Future Or A Leap Towards Destruc IntroductionScience is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history has scienc...