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exact instructions Genetic engineering 3

Science is a creature that continues to evolve at an ever-increasing rate.  The transformation from tree shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time for the transformation time from an analytical machine, to a calculator, to a computer.  However, science, in the past, has always remained distant.  Science has allowed advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment; but never in history will science have an affect on our lives, as genetic engineering will undoubtedly do.  For the last decade, science has made vast improvements in genetics, monitored by the Human Genome Project.  The goal of this organization is to identify and understand the entire genetic constitution.  "They have the daunting task of identifying and mapping all of the eighty thousand genes, in human DNA, they are making new discoveries weekly" (Reuterlinkextra).  With these discoveries comes many implications, In reviewing the literature genetic engineering needs to be banned because of the social, religious, ethical, and legal implications.
The first step to understanding genetic engineering is to know the start of its creation.  Genetics achieved its first foothold on the secrets of nature's evolutionary process, when an Austrian Monk named Gregor Mendel developed the basics of how genetics work.  Using this, scientist studied the characteristics of organisms for the next one hundred years following Mendel's discoveries.  These early studies concluded that each organism has two sets of character determinants, genes (Stableford 16).  For instance, in regards to eye color, a child could receive one set of genes from his or her father that were encoded one blue, the other brown.  The same child could also receive from its mother two brown genes.  The conclusion is that the child would have a three out of four chance of having brown eyes and a one out if four chance of having blue eyes (Stableford 16).
Inside every person is Deoxyribonucleic acid or more commonly known as DNA.  DNA exist as two long, fine strands of DNA spiraling into the famous figure of the double helix.  The discovery of DNA is attributed to three scientist, Francis Crik, Maurice Wilkins, and James Dewey.   All were given the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine in 1962  (Lewin 1).
Each strand of DNA is composed of millions of the essential chemical building blocks of life, chemical bases. "There are four bases Adenine (A), Thiamin (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C).  These bases can only be paired in certain order, (A) only with (T), (G) only with (C), and vice versa" (Barnes 180).  The order of in which these bases occur determine the information available, much as specific letters combine to form words in a sentence.  
DNA resides in the nucleus of all of our cells, except the red blood cells.  In each nucleus, there are forty-six molecules of coiled, double stranded DNA. Each one of these molecules is housed in a structure called a chromosome.  Inside each chromosome are genes. Genes are the chemical message of heredity.  "Genes constitute a blueprint of our possibilities and limitations, the legacy of generations of our ancestors, our genes carry the key to our similarities and uniqueness" (Genetic).  Genes are made up of the chemical bases Adenine, Thiamin, Guanine, and Cytosine.  These base in a certain order makes up codes, these codes determine if you are short, tall, fat, skinny, and etc.
The sex cells are half of the forty-six chromosomes, twenty-three to be exact.  In these cells, by random only certain genes are carried by the cells.  When the sex cell from a man, sperm, and a sex cell from a woman, an egg, combine their genetic information and a new life is created with the traits from its parents.  
Genetic engineering is isolating and removing a desired gene from a strand of DNA.  In genetic engineering, many different apparatuses are used in removing the gene.  One way DNA can be broken up is by ultra-high frequency sound waves, but this procedure is highly inaccurate way of isolating a desirable trait (Stableford 26).  A more accurate way of obtaining the desired trait is the use of restriction enzymes.  These enzymes chemically cut the DNA at a particular location on the strand.  Now that the trait is cut out, it ... more

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Birth Control

Birth Control is defined as various ways used to prevent pregnancy from occurring. Birth Control has been a concern for humans for thousands of years. The first contraception devices were mechanical barriers in the vagina that prevented the male sperm from fertilizing the female egg. Other methods of birth control that were used in the vagina were sea sponges, mixtures of crocodile dung and honey, quinine, rock salt and alum.
Birth Control was of interest for a long time, but women did not worry to much about it because child death rates were so high. They felt they needed to have many children just for a few to survive. In the early 1800's death rates began to drop and people began to show concern for controlling births. Early efforts to develop birth control met with resistance from religious leaders and other groups. In 1873, the U.S. Congress passed the Comstock Law, which regulated public access to birth-control devices and information for the next 60 years. This prohibition, which made it illegal to distribute any device, medicine or information designed to prevent conception, applied even to doctors.
During the early 1900's, Margaret Sanger started the birth control movement in the United States. She and others opened clinics to provide women with information and devices. She and her followers were frequently jailed but were also able to change many laws. In 1930 the courts in New York State held that in certain cases the sale of contraceptives could be legal. This ruling by the court changed the Comstock Law. Other laws also weakened the Comstock Law. It was not until 1972 that the Supreme Court legalized birth control for unmarried persons.
Methods of birth control that are available today range from permanent procedures such as surgical sterilization to temporary methods that must be used with each act of intercourse.
The first method is abstinence or no sex play, this will keep sperm from joining egg. This method is difficult for many people because they have a hard time going without sex for long periods of time and they forget to protect themselves when they stop abstaining.
The outercourse method means you will have sex play without vaginal intercourse. This is also difficult for many people and they sometimes forget to protect themselves.
The most popular form of birth control in the U.S. among married couples over the age of 30 is surgical sterilization. In the woman this is done by severing and sealing off the Fallopian tubes. The tubes that carry the egg from the ovary to the uterus. The operation is called a tubal ligation. In the male, sterilization is accomplished by severing the two vas deferens. The tubes that carry sperm from the testes to the penis. This procedure is called a vasectomy. Surgical sterilization is relatively easy to accomplish for either sex and is virtually free of known side effects, it is also 100 percent effective. It should be considered a permanent method of birth control.
There are several chemical methods of birth control on the market. Oral contraceptives or the pill, are chemicals that work by altering a woman's normal hormonal patterns so that ovulation does not occur. Their introduction in the late 1950's revolutionized birth control. The pill is nearly 100 percent effective when taken according to directions. Some risks do exist when taking the pill but usually for women who smoke or who are over the age of 35.
A newer more innovative method is called Norplant. This method consists of six small capsules which is
inserted under the skin of your upper arm. The capsules constantly release small amounts of hormone that prevent the release of eggs and thicken cervical mucus to keep sperm from joining the egg. Norplant is effective for up to five years and can be easily removed at any time.
Depo-Provera is an even newer method of birth control. This is an injection of the synthetic hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate, which prevents release of egg, thicken cervical mucus to keep sperm from joining egg and prevents fertilized egg from implanting in uterus for about three months.
Another type of chemical birth control are spermicidal jelly, cream or foam. Spermicides can be used without medical supervision, and must ... more

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