Ethnic Groups In Iraq


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ethnic groups in iraq The United States As A World Power: How Much Longer Will The US Be The Policeman
The United States As A World Power: How Much Longer Will The US Be The Policeman
of the World ?

Juan Valdez

     The United States has been a super power for decades, and since America
has always involved themselves in other countries' problems. Instead of
isolationism, the country has practiced getting involved. Since the Monroe
Presidency, America has been named the World's police force. Dispelling
anarchists, and stopping coos, the united states portrays itself as the world
protector. Since Monroe, some Americans have felt that isolation is the way to
go, and most feel that it is our right to offer assistance. Two recent incidents,
Operation Desert Storm and The War in Bosnia have allowed the United States to
show off it's strength, both on the military and political level. It has also
given the chance for America to evaluate it's foreign policy, but can the World
Super-Power continue to police other countries in light of earlier battles, or
should the stationed troops pack up and home for good.
     Americans have always been overseas, protecting or overseeing the peace
of another country. During the Monroe administration many US Policies were
established, some of which are still in effect today. The Monroe Doctrine,
passed into law by Congress under Monroe, has forced the United States to get
into so many conflicts with neighboring Latin American countries. Sometimes even
European countries declared war on America because of this doctrine.
     The Monroe Doctrine was delivered by James Monroe to the United States
Congress in 1823. Since that time, this document has been the cornerstone of the
United States foreign policy. This document was established for two major
reasons, both involving European countries on United States soil. The first was
Russia, who at the time was planning to establish a colony on the pacific
northwest coast, the United States felt that it was a strategic military
position, and if ever at war with Russia, it would pose as a threat. The second
was that several European nations were planing to help Spain recover some of
it's New World' colonies which had declared independence. The United States saw
this as a threat as well. For these reasons, Monroe made an statements to
various nations.

"One statement warned Russia that the American continents were not to be
considered as subjects for future colonization by any European power." A second
warned France, Russia, Prussia, and Austria that any attempt to extend their
system to any portion of this hemisphere' would be considered dangerous to our
peace and safety' and any attempt to control independent American governments an
unfriendly act toward the United States."1

With these and other statements, John Quincy Adams drew up the Monroe Doctrine,
and Congress voted and passed it.
     The Monroe Doctrine was stressed during the time of Roosevelt's
Presidency. During this era many foreign policies were given up, such as the
Platt Amendment. Roosevelt decided that instead of the "Old single-handed
enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine,"2 that they should rely only on the other
American nations for the enforcement of their laws. Along with this Roosevelt
showed very little signs of strength towards foreign countries. When Cuba was
full of riots under the leadership of Machado, Roosevelt did nothing. In 1934
America gave up the Platt Amendment, and removed the marines from Haiti.
     The Vietnam War was one of the most influential wars in American History.
The United States did not actually lose, but ending with a cease fire was
considered a loss. When all of the troops returned they were looked upon by the
American public scornfully. This caused both the troops and the American
citizens to dislike the government. Many riots took place and many public
displays happened.

"in response to a drive by the North Vietnamese forces into the South, President
Richard M. Nixon ordered the mining of harbors off North Vietnam. Both the
bombing ant the mining provoked sustained antiwar protests within the United
States."3

For many years the United States government was very uneasy about getting into
any heavy conflicts with other nations, for fear that it may turn into another
Vietnam. Resent towards the governments decision is still around, but it is
dissipating fast, mostly because of all of the good things that the United
States has done.
     All of this has changed since that time. United States foreign policy is
one of the most complicated problems that has arisen. With the two World Wars,
United States foreign policy was used greatly to secure a peace for ... more

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History of Turkish Occupation of Northern Kurdistan


Eric jensen
Poli. Sci. (Third World Politics)
11/27/96
History of Turkish Occupation of Northern Kurdistan.
Since 1984, and especially the last few  months, the domestic problems of a
major N.A.T.O, Middle Eastern, and American ally state have come to the
forefront of the international news scene. That state is the Republic of Turkey
and it's primary troubles stem from the past seven decades of acrimonious
policies directed at the indigenous ethnic Kurds. The main problem, now, is the
Kurdish popular insurgency on it's hands, in Turkish occupied Northern
Kurdistan. The Kurdish question has long been covered up and denied by the
state of Turkey, but recent events has forced Turkey to concede that it has a
serious Kurdish insurgency on its hands. Turkey's inability to deal with this
situation is the result of the past seventy years of  cultural, political, and
human rights abuses directed against the Kurdish population. In fact, this
"separatism" is so out of hand that the Turkish government  has incessantly
appealed to it's allies and advisories alike to help counter the escalating
Kurdish asperation to succeed from the Turkish republic. Turkey's sputtering
and deteriorating economy is directly related to the long Kurdish struggle for
independence. Turkey has spent over eight billion dollars or twenty percent of
her GDP to combat the ever deteriorating predicament in northern Kurdistan, and
should spend more in the future(Laber). Because of the violence, the once
prosperous tourist business of Turkey, has now lost about $1.5 billion dollars
annually since 1990. Many people now talk openly of another possible military
coup, there were three major military coups during the last thirty years
(Alister) These circumstances in the state of  Turkey have also hurt her
chances of ever joining the ever wealthy European Union and battering its
ailing economic situation. The depth of Turkey's domestic and ethnic dilemma is
one of the many that have arisen after the end of the cold war, yet the cold
war is a simple answer to a much more complex one. The factors that have arisen
to contribute to this civil war were created far before Capitalism versus
Communism, East versus West, or U.S versus the Soviet Union. In order to really
comprehend the holistic  situation in Turkey one must first be familiar with
the complete history of the Turks and Kurds.
The Kurds of Turkey constitutes, by far, the largest ethnic minority group in
Turkey. The estimate of their population, however, are very dubious because of
the past Turkish policy to deny the very existence of any minorities within the
borders of her state. In fact, past Turkish rhetoric has been that there is no
official Kurdish problem in Turkey, because officially no Kurds exist. We can
ascertain that the kurds make up  between twenty-five and thirty-three percent
of the Turkey's population. This would put the Kurdish population about twelve
to twenty million (Morris). Because of past and present  forced Turkish
assimilation practices, the Kurds live in all parts of the country, but most of
the Kurdish population is concentrated  in the southeastern part of Turkey.
They represent a high percentage of the population in fifteen provinces and
take up a total of thirty percent of all of Turkey (Kendal). Economically, the
Kurds are the poorest inhabitants of the country. The per capita of a Kurd is
one-tenth of a Turk living in Istanbul; well below the poverty line (McDowell).
While the rest of Turkey has modernized and adopted some capitalistic
practices, the Kurdish areas, by contrast, are underdeveloped and exploited by
feudal landlords. The wealth of the area is "drained and channeled to the
Turkish metropolis (Kendal)." Much of the region is relatively unchanged since
the last seventy years of Turkish rule or has suffered even worse economically.
The thirty million Kurds of the Middle East have lived in Kurdistan before
record of modern history was kept. The very first mention of the Kurds in
history was about 3,000 BC, under the name Gutium., as they fought the
Summerians(Spieser). Later around 800 BC, the Indo-European Median tribes
settled in the Zagros mountain region and coalesced with the Gutiums, and thus
the modern Kurds speak from as Aryan language (Morris). The Kurds are mentioned
by Xenaphon, a Greek mercenary, as he retreated from Persia with ten thousand
men in 401 BC, he says of the Kurds, "These people, lived in the mountains and
were very war-like and not subject to the Persian king. Indeed once a royal
army of 120,000 thousand had once invaded their country, and not a man of them
came ... more

ethnic groups in iraq

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