Establishment Of Freight


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establishment of freight Growth Of Nyse

Growth of NYS Business
April 17, 1996
For a number of reasons, business enterprise in New
York grew by leaps and bounds between 1825 and 1860.
New York's growth between the years 1825 and 1860 can be attributed to a
number of factors. These include but cannot be limited to the
construction of the Erie Canal, the invention of the telegraph, the
developed of the railroads, the establishment of Wall Street and
banking, the textile, shipping, agriculture and newpaper industries, the
development of steam power and the use of iron products.
On October 26, 1825 the Erie Canal was opened. The canal immediately
became an important commercial route connecting the East with the Ohio
and Mississippi Valleys. With tht time of travel cut to one-third and
the cost of shipping freight cut to one-tenthof the previous figures,
commerce via the canal soon made New York City the chief port of the
Atlantic. The growing urban population and the contruction of canals,
railroads and factories stimulated the demand for raw materials and food
stuffs. In 1836 four-fifths of the tonnage over the Erie Canal came
from western New York (North, 105). Much of this cargo was in the form
of agriculture goods.
The farmer become a shrewed businessaman of sorts as he tended to
produce whatever products would leave him the greatest profit margin.
The rise of the dairy industry was by far the most significant
development in the agricultural history of the state between 1825 and
1860. Farmers discovered that cows were their most relliable
money-makers, since both the domestic and foreign market kept demanding
more dairy products (Ellis, 273). Price flucuations became increasingly
important for the farming population between 1825 and 1860. Prices rose
from the low level of the early 1820's until the middle 1830's and the
farmer's shared in the general prosperity (271). Although the rapid
industrialization and urbanization of New York had a great deal to do
with the success of agricultural markets sporadic demand from aboard as
a result of the Irish famine, the Crimean War and the repeal of the
Corn Laws in England also contributed(North, 141). During this period
Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York and Virginia, in that order were the
leading wheat growing states. Between the years 1840 and 1850 New York
ranked first in the production of beef.
The absence of politic party differences on issues related to the the
growth of democracy existed in regard to the foremost economic
questions, there was absolutely no partisan division evident in the
movement to incorporate new financial institutions; rather , the primary
factors , which the legislators examined, concerned value, feasibility,
profit and the location within the state. Dozens of turnpike proposals,
most of which werebacked by the Republicans, passed the legislature; but
the Federalists cooperated, seeing the chance for profits. Prominent
Federalists like John Rutherfurd, John Neilson, William Paterson, John
Bayard, and James Parker invested susstanial sums in the turnpike
business. There were numerous Republicans who were also vitally
interested in the turnpike business (Kass, 150). Bipartisan support
also accompanied plans for the construction of bridges and canals.
All of the parties contained a large number of adherents from from every
level of economic well-being in society. This helps to expain the
absence of any clear-cut party differences on the major economic issues
of the such as the chartering of banks, the protestive tariff, internal
improvements, the development of manufacturing, and the promotion of
superior agricultural techniques. Each politcal faction had segments
both pro and con on most of these questions, and, inall cases it was
opprtunism, the desire for profits, which was decisive in determining
one's political position on these economic issues(175).
New York's economic growth can also be attributed to the invention of
the cotton gin. Cotton had become a boom crop in the south, however,
plantation owners were either too engrossed in the production of their
crops or too unschooled in business techiniques to handle its
distribution. Some just did not want to be bothered. This opened thee
door for agents representing New York shipping firms who were only too
happy to help them out - for a fee. This scheme not only earned the New
York merchants a ... more

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Labor and Unions in America

The Industrial Revolution was dawning in the United States. At Lowell, Massachusetts, the construction of a big cotton mill began in 1821. It was the first of several that would be built there in the next 10 years. The machinery to spin and weave cotton into cloth would be driven by water power. All that the factory owners needed was a dependable supply of labor to tend the machines.

As most jobs in cotton factories required neither great strength nor special skills, the owners thought women could do the work as well as or better than men. In addition, they were more compliant. The New England region was home to many young, single farm girls who might be recruited. But would stern New England farmers allow their daughters to work in factories? The great majority of them would not. They believed that sooner or later factory workers would be exploited and would sink into hopeless poverty. Economic "laws" would force them to work harder and harder for less and less pay.

THE LOWELL EXPERIMENT
How, then, were the factory owners able to recruit farm girls as laborers? They did it by building decent houses in which the girls could live. These houses were supervised by older women who made sure that the girls lived by strict moral standards. The girls were encouraged to go to church, to read, to write and to attend lectures. They saved part of their earnings to help their families at home or to use when they got married.

The young factory workers did not earn high wages; the average pay was about $3.50 a week. But in those times, a half-dozen eggs cost five cents and a whole chicken cost 15 cents. The hours worked in the factories were long. Generally, the girls worked 11 to 13 hours a day, six days a week. But most people in the 1830s worked from dawn until dusk, and farm girls were used to getting up early and working until bedtime at nine o'clock.

The factory owners at Lowell believed that machines would bring progress as well as profit.

Workers and capitalists would both benefit from the wealth created by mass production. For a while, the factory system at Lowell worked very well. The population of the town grew from 200 in 1820 to 30,000 in 1845. But conditions in Lowell's factories had already started to change. Faced with growing competition, factory owners began to decrease wages in order to lower the cost-and the price-of finished products.

They increased the number of machines that each girl had to operate. In addition, they began to overcrowd the houses in which the girls lived. Sometimes eight girls had to share one room.

In 1836, 1,500 factory girls went on strike to protest wage cuts. (The girls called their action a "turn out.") But it was useless. Desperately poor immigrants were beginning to arrive in the United States from Europe. To earn a living, they were willing to accept low wages and poor working conditions. Before long, immigrant women replaced the "Yankee" (American) farm girls.

To many people, it was apparent that justice for wage earners would not come easily. Labor in America faced a long, uphill struggle to win fair treatment. In that struggle, more and more workers would turn to labor unions to help their cause. They would endure violence, cruelty and bitter defeats. But eventually they would achieve a standard of living unknown to workers at any other time in history.

GROWTH OF THE FACTORY
In colonial America, most manufacturing was done by hand in the home. Some was done in workshops attached to the home. As towns grew into cities, the demand for manufactured goods increased. Some workshop owners began hiring helpers to increase production. Relations between the employer and helper were generally harmonious. They worked side by side, had the same interests and held similar political views.

The factory system that began around 1800 brought great changes. The employer no longer worked beside his employees. He became an executive and a merchant who rarely saw his workers. He was concerned less with their welfare than with the cost of their labor. Many workers were angry ... more

establishment of freight

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