Realism

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AMERICAN REALISM (ACTUAL PAPER IS 2369 WORDS)2. CLONING – THE BIO ETHICAL CONCEPT (ACTUAL PAPER IS APP. 1868 WORDS)3. A DAY IN MY LIFE 100 YEARS FROM NOW (FICTIONAL ESSAY)4. BIBLIOGRAPHY SAMPLE: 1. American RealismWhat historical events led up to the period of literature called American Realism (i.e. What attitudes did people have in order to make this sort of literature popular at the time?), and how do 2-3 of these novels exemplify this attitude/genre?Writing often makes the most sense when read in its original historical context. The best interpretations will thereby make connections between a work\'s internal structure and the ways of thinking in the work\'s social and historical context.Realism in literature is an attempt to describe human behavior and surroundings or to represent figures and objects exactly as they act or appear in life. Attempts at realism have been made periodically throughout history in all the arts; the term is, however, generally restricted to a movement that began in the mid-19th century, in reaction to the highly subjective approach of romanticism. The difference between realism and naturalism is harder to define, however, and the two terms are often used interchangeably. The distinction lies in the fact that realism is concerned directly with what is absorbed by the senses; naturalism, a term more properly applied to literature, attempts to apply scientific theories to the same.American Realist literature is defined particularly as the fiction produced in the United States from about 1840 until the 1890s, when realism was superseded by naturalism. Mark Twain and William Dean Howells were the pioneers of realism in the United States. One of the greatest realists of all, the Anglo-American novelist Henry James, drew much inspiration from his mentors, Eliot and Howells. James\'s concern with character motivation and behavior led to the development of a subgenre, the psychological novel.The mid-nineteenth century was a time of incredible changes. When I say changes, I refer to social, as well as technological advancements. These times were making enormous changes in everyone\'s lives. Anything that is new or totally different from what one is accustomed to dealing with, causes a certain amount of hesitation at first. The days of romantic, flowery discourse and literature made way for the more practical, solid, real interpretation of life.In general, the work of these writers illustrates the main tenet of realism, that writers must not select facts in accord with preconceived aesthetic or ethical ideals but must set down their observations impartially and objectively. Concerned with the faithful representation of life, which frequently lacks form, the realists tended to downplay plot in favor of character and to concentrate on middle-class life and preoccupations, avoiding larger, more dramatic issues.Mark Twain, pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, was an American writer and humorist, whose best work is characterized by broad, often irreverent humor or biting social satire. Twain\'s writing is also known for realism of place and language, memorable characters, and hatred of hypocrisy and oppression.Much of Twain\'s best work was written in the 1870s and 1880s in Hartford or during the summers at Quarry Farm, near Elmira, New York. Twain\'s skill in capturing the rhythms of life helps make his books count among the masterpieces of American literature. Twain’s work during the 1890s and the 1900s is marked by growing pessimism and bitterness—the result of his business reverses and, later, the deaths of his wife and two daughters. A significant work of this period is Pudd\'nhead Wilson (1894), a novel set in the South before the Civil War that criticizes racism by focusing on mistaken racial identities.Twain\'s work was inspired by