Psychology

The impact of bullying and cyberbullying on cognitive and mental health of the victim and perpetrator.

Bullying is the use of force, threat, intimidate or aggressively dominate others. The behavior of a bully is often repetitive and habitual. There are different types of bullying verbal physical and with the new technology a different form of bullying immersed called cyber bullying. Cyberbullying is becoming very popular amongst the adolescents due to all the new technology. Bullies often like to target one's social class, race, ethnicity , sexuality, physical appearance and gender. Bullying has a very strong impact on both the victim and the bully.
Bullying can be defined in many different ways. The united kingdom and other european countries have no legal definition of bullying while the united state has very severe laws on bullying. Bullying is divided into 4 basic types of abuse; emotional, verbal, physical and cyber. It typically involves subtle methods such as intimidation.
Bullying ranges from one on one, individual bullying through to group bullying, in which the bully ma have one or more bullies assisting.bullying in school and the workplace can be referred to as peer abuse. Robert W. Fuller has analyzed bullying in the context of rankism.
Studies show that envy and resentment may be motives for bullying. Some also bully as a tool to conceal shame or anxiety or boost self esteem. Psychologist Roy Baumeister said ‘people who are prone to abusive tend to have inflated but fragile egos. Because they think to highly of themselves, are frequently offended by criticism and lack of defence of other people and react to this disrespect with violence and insult.
Research also shows a lot of risk factor like depression and personality disorders, addiction to aggressive behaviors, and engaging in obsessive action. A study shows a combination of antisocial traits and depression was found to be the best predictor of youth violence. Research also found that bullying may be a result of genetic predisposition, brain abnormalities. During early adolescence parents teach emotional regulation and control aggressive behaviors, some children fail to develop these skills. Children may fail to develop these skills because of insecure attachment with their families, ineffective discipline, and some environmental factors such as a stressful home and hostile siblings. Research also shows that adults who bully will have authoritarian personalities, and have strong urges to be in control and dominate.
Victims of bullying may suffer from future health risks. Dr Cook said that " a typical victim is unlikely to be aggressive, lack socials skills, think negative thought, experience difficulties in solving social problem, come from a negative family and be noticeably rejected and isolated by peers." Victims of bullying can suffer from long term emotional and behavioral problems. Victims often develop depression,  loneliness, anxiety low self esteem and increased susceptibility to illness and may develop suicidal behavior.
While some people find it very easy to ignore bullies others may find it difficult to and reach their breaking point. Depression is one of the main reasons why kids who are bullied commit suicide. According to Suicide Awareness Voices for Education, 16%of students ages 15-24 years old consider suicide , 13% percent create a plan and 8% have made an attempt.

New perspectives on bullying by kenrigby
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, by Paul Graham. This essay is an example of how even medium diffrences in hierarchal, Zero-sum, or negative environments, can lead to ostracsm or persecution.