Primitive Americans


Primitive Americans

American Indians are sometimes also known as Native Americans.  Native meaning original.  However, nowadays their population is fading away.  Once they made the initial marks on this land, now they are a forgotten story.  There were about four hundred different kinds of tribes living in nine major areas.  One of the nine major regions , where Indians  were from was the Southwest. The dominant  tribes of this region were Apache Indians, Pueblo Indians, and Navajo Indians.  

First, the Apache, who were mainly  from Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, were the major nomadic tribe in the Southwestern part of America. Nomadic means that they moved from  place to place; they didn't have any fixed home.  Likewise, they resided in rough conical tipi, hide house, or in domed bark.  This individual tribe also had subgroups called Aravaipa Apache, Cibecue Apache, Kiowa Apache, Lipan Apache, Tonto Apache, and also White Mountain Apache.  The name Apache derives from  apachu, the Zuni word for 'enemy.'  They also called themselves N'de, Inde or Tinde meaning 'people.'  

Kiowa Apache from the Colorado and Oklahoma plains were similar to other Apache groups  culturally and linguistically, still they were associated with the Pawnee groups politically and geographically.  They were connected by the terms of the Treaty of 1867.  The Lipan Apache, from the plains of Texas and Oklahoma, named themselves Tcicihi meaning 'people of the forest.'  In 1950, out of eighty six hundred Apache there
were about 200 Cibecue Apache, 30 Lipan Apache, and 400 Apache remained in Southwest.  Their main food source was wild plants.

The  second dominant tribe  was Pueblo.  They lived in  particular self-contained places in New Mexico.    The word Pueblo comes from the Spanish word for 'village.'  They lived in a rectangular abode house(pueblo) that was created so that an entire community could be arranged in a single interconnected complex.  Maize and wild plants were their main foods.  Many worked as farmers raising corn, beans, squash, and tobacco.  They also hunted animals for food and clothing.  Just like, regulating religious life, hunting was part of Pueblo man's job.  

The last and one of the largest tribes of the Southwest was the Navajo, also known as Dineh  and Navaho.  They lived throughout the entire Southwestern region within rectangular wooden houses(hogan).  Derivation of word Navajo comes from the Spanish word for 'people with big fields.' The Navajo were less sedentary  than the Pueblo tribes and more like Apache tribes.  One of the important components of their lifestyle was sheep, which was brought in by Spanish. During the war, they went to Canyon de Chelly and remained there to get out of the slavery.  However, they were defeated and put into prison for five years.  As a result of a new Treaty of 1868, they were liberated to the  valley.

The Navajo nation contains larger areas than combining New Jersey, Connecticut, and  Massachusetts.  From 1868 through 1985, the population of the Navajo tribe has increased enormously.  The majority of the Navajo people reside in New Mexico and Utah.  

In conclusion, Apache Indians, Pueblo Indians, and Navajo Indians are the three dominant tribes in the Southwest of Native Americans.  Although Indian  culture is visible in Southwest and remaining Indians have kept their origin, it has been destroyed throughout North America.  

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