North Vs. South
The Civil War

Causes of the civil war

200 Years of Slavery
In 1808, congress prohibited importing anymore slaves into the
country. But Slavery still went on until 1850. That was was about the two
hundredth year it had existed in the United States. They had sent several
thousand slaves back to what is now Liberia.
Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin
Eli Whitney was in Savannah, Georgia visiting a friend. Whitney was
a Yale college graduate. He invented an easy to make and cheap cotton gin
that was very profitable. It removed the seeds from cotton.
How Cotton Affected Slaves
After the cotton gin and the cotton press had been invented, production
was increased a lot. The slaves were now more valuable to their owners. It
resulted in them being treated better.
The Abolitionist Movement
There were mostly white people from the free states that wanted to
abolish slavery. They were called abolitionists. They were mostly religious
people that said it would be a sin not to stop it. They also quoted the
Declaration of Independence that said we are all created equally which was
hard to object.
Harriet Ross Tubman
Harriet Ross Tubman, a black abolitionist from Maryland, moved to
Pennsylvania and became a cook there. She earned the nickname ?Moses?
by freeing two hundred to three hundred slaves by escaping to the northern
Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass was a black abolitionist. He tried to escape a first
time but he was captured. Two years later, he successfully escaped slavery.
He was known to be one of the best people at giving speeches. Later, he
wrote a book called The North Star.
Fugitive Slave Act
Under this new law, slaves that escaped from the south and were living
in the north could be captured and brought back to the south. Most slaves
fled to Canada to escape slavery completely. In only a few years, about two
hundred blacks were captured.
Although the northern states were against slavery, most white people
were prejudice against blacks. They were not to be where white people were.
This is called being segregated or segregation.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Tom's Cabin was a book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It
was written in 1852 and tried to make the point that the slave system was at
fault and not the white farmers that profited.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
After the northerners had become more and more concerned with the
slaves, they had the Kansas-Nebraska act. They would let the people there
decide if there should be slavery.
Popular Sovereignty
Popular sovereignty is a system that allowed settlers in each territory to
decide whether or not they would have slavery.
Bleeding Kansas
The town of Lawrence in Kansas had become the headquarters of
anti-slavery settlers. On May 21, an army of Missourians led by Sheriff
Jones marched in and thrashed two printing presses by throwing them into a
river and burned The Free State hotel.
The Dred Scott Case
Dred Scott was a slave. In 1833, Dred Scott was sold to an army
doctor named John Emerson. When Emerson died, they sued Missouri for
their freedom.
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Abraham Lincoln was a successful lawyer. He was chosen to be the
republican candidate for the senate. Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas
challenged each other to debate in Illinois and agreed. Lincoln and ?The
Little Giant? debated and Lincoln' side was hard to disagree with.
The Attack On Harpers Ferry
John Brown believed it was his duty to stop slavery. He put together a
small army of eighteen men and marched into the south to seize some land.
He expected slaves from all around to join him. No one did because he never
informed anybody of his intentions.
The Succession Crisis
Lincoln had become president. When he made the comment, ?If
slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong,? it was a slap in the face to white
southerners. The southern states left the union to continue slavery. This is
what triggered the civil war.
Fort Sumter
Fort Sumter was one of three forts in South Carolina in Charleston. It
was located on an island in the Charleston harbor. When James Buchanan,
the president at that time, sent supplies to the fort there were cannons fired at
the ship. These were the first shots fired in the civil war.
Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis from Mississippi was unanimously elected president of
the confederate states of America. His vice president was Alexander
Stephens from Georgia. He was elected to the house of representatives in
eighteen eighty five. One year later, when the Mexican war broke out, he left
congress to be a colonel in the army.

Strengths and Weaknesses
North South
1. Food 1. Cotton
2. Factories, money, and credit 2. Fighting near home