Personality Disorders

Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) or Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) was
first recognized in the 1700\'s but was not understood so therefore it was
forgotten. Many cases show up in medical records through the years, but in 1905,

Dr. Morton Prince wrote a book about MPD that is a foundation for the disorder.

A few years after it was published Sigmund Freud dismissed the disorder and this
dropped it from being discussed at any credible mental health meetings. Since
then the disorder has been overlooked and misdiagnosed as either schizophrenia
or psychosis. Many in the medical profession did not believe that a person could
unknowingly have more than one personality or person inside one body, even after
the in the 1950\'s Three Faces of Eve was published by two psychiatrist. In 1993,
records showed that three to five thousand patients were being treated for MPD
compared to the hundred cases reported ten years earlier. There is still as
increase in the number of cases being reported as the scientific community
learns more and more about the disease and the public is becoming more and more
aware of this mental disorder. There are still many questions left unanswered
about the disease, like "Is it genetic?" or "Is a certain type of
personality more vulnerable to the disorder?" but many aspects of how
people come by the disorder are already answered (Clark, 1993, p.17-19) MPD is
commonly found in adults who were recurrently abused mentally, physically,
emotionally, and/or sexually as young children, between birth to 8 years of age.

The child uses a process called dissociation to remove him/herself from the
abusive situation. Dissociation is when a child makes up an imaginary
personality to take control of the mind and body while the child is being
abused. The child can imagine many personalities but usually there is a
personality for every feeling and or emotion that was involved during the abuse
(BoyyM, 1998, p.1). As an adult, the abused child finds it hard to keep track of
time and may have episodes of amnesia. Other symptoms that will appear in adults
with MPD are depression, auditory and visual hallucinations (hearing voices) and
suicidal thoughts. Another major symptom is when the adult has no recollection
of their childhood. The adult with MPD has no idea they were abused as children
and also unaware of the other personalities living inside of their head
(Multiple Personality Disorder-fact sheet, 1996-99, p.1). Multiple Personality

Disorder is when there is "the presence of two or more distinct identities
or personalities, each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving,
relating to, and thinking about the environment and self"(BoyyM, 1998,
p.1). There can be anywhere from two to over a hundred different personalities.

Usually each personality will fall into one of the following categories: core,
host, protectors, internal self-helper, fragments, child members, preteen,
teenager, adults, artistic/music, cross-gender, cross-colored, animal members,
inanimate members (BoyyM, 1998, p. 2-3). The host personality is the person who
is the multiple, this is the original personality, or the one that created the
other personalities, but is unaware of them. The most common apparent identities
are the child, persecutor, rescuer, and helper. The child is the identity that
is under the age of twelve. They behave as children often sucking thumbs,
twisting hair, like to eat cookies, throw tantrums, and use child-like
vocabulary. The Persecutor identity is the self-destructive identity that is
violent and angry. Persecutor identities usually have a drug/alcohol problem and
generally put the host at risk. The rescuer personality is usually devoid of
emotion but logical, able, proficient, and responsible. The helper personality
knows the most about the history of the multiple; they generally want to help
everyone for the general good. The helper personality is the personality that is
most helpful in therapy because they usually know about all the other identities
(Clark, 1993, p.80-83). Subpersonalities are not only part of a person with MPD
but they are also evident in emotionally normal persons as well. Although, in a
normal person, he/she remembers when their subpersonality takes over, but in a

MPD patient, the personality disconnects from the host that the host can not
remember what happens. When a traumatic experience happens, whether positive or
negative, a subpersonality will develop. In a normal person, the splitting is
broken into an "ok self" and a "not ok self". In a multiple,
the personalities are more defined; they are broken into smaller fragments that
disassociate from the human host (Rowan, 1990, p. 7, 20). In the book by Terri

A. Clark, M.D., it shows the distinct the personalities are in several cases. It
also displays how each