Israel has many coastal plains, several mountains, and hills. The Coastal plains run
parallel to the Mediterranean Sea and is made up of beaches, bordered by fertile land.
In the north, there are sandy beaches and sandstone cliffs that drop to the sea.
The coastal plain is home to over half of Israel's population. The coastal plains also house most of Israel's industry.
Several mountain ranges run through Israel. In the northeast, are the
Golan Heights, which were formed by volcanic eruptions. The hills of Galilee, made of
limestone, reach to heights ranging from 1,600 to 4,000 feet above sea level. Small streams and little rainfall keep the area fertile. People, who live in Galilee and the Golan, work in agriculture, tourism-related jobs, and industry.
The rolling hills of Samaria and Judea present rocky hilltops and fertile valleys dotted with age-old olive groves. The hillsides, first developed by farmers in ancient times, blend into the natural landscape. The population is mainly found in small urban areas
and large villages. Continuing south, the region becomes an area of bare peaks, craters and
plateaus, where the climate is drier and the mountains are higher.
The northern areas of Israel are extremely fertile, while the southern part is
semi-arid. Agriculture, fishing, light industry and tourism make up the area's main
sources of income. The Jordan River, flows north to south with a 186 mile
route. It then empties into the Dead Sea. The river is usually narrow and shallow.
The Arava, Israel's savannah region, begins south of the Dead Sea and extends to the
Gulf of Eilat, Israel's outlet to the Red Sea. The average annual rainfall is less than one
inch and summer temperatures soar to 104 F.
The Dead Sea, the lowest point on earth at about 1,300 feet below sea
level, lies at the southern end of the Jordan Valley. Its waters have the highest level of salinity in the world. The Dead Sea is rich in potasium, magnesium and bromine, as
well as table salts.