Iran

Iran is a country located in the Middle East. Below it is the Gulf of Oman
and to the west is the Persian Gulf. On the east is Afghanistan and to the
north is Turkmenistan and the Caspian Sea. The total area of Iran is 632,457
square miles, which is slightly larger than Alaska and about 6 times smaller
than the United States. Iran has about 65,612,000 people which is about 100
people per square mile. That means that the United States has close to 3
times the size in population than Iran.

Climate and Geography
Iran is split up into three regions of land forms. The first is the coast along
the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman which has high temperatures of 120
degrees Fahrenheit. In the inland part of the plateau in can also hit 120
degrees. In the capital city Tehran, which is located at the edge of the Elburz
Mountains, the average temperature is about 36 degrees Fahrenheit in
January and 85 degrees Fahrenheit in July. In the nearby city of Abadan,
which is on the coast of Iran up in the corner of the Persian Gulf, the
temperatures are about the same, even though it's right by the Persian Gulf
getting the warm air from the the water.
The Plateau of Iran is very dry throughout most of it because the annual
precipitation is about 1 or 2 inches. On the coast of the Persian Gulf they get
10 inches to 15 inches per year. In the Zagros and Elburz Mountain ranges,
the precipitation is about 50 inches annually. Rivers in Iran are low in the
summer time because most of them are on flat land. The only rivers that
stay high are the ones that run from mountains. Like the Karun River,
which flows from the Zagros Mountains into Khorramshahr. It is
supposedly the most navigable river in Iran.
The highest peak in Iran is Mount Damavand at 18,934 feet, it is part of the
Elburz mountain range. The second highest peak is Mount Kalar, which is
14,100 feet high. The Karun river flows southward from beside this
mountain.

History
In 549 B.C. Iran was called Persia and ruled by Cyrus the Great. He united
the Medes and Persians to make the country we know of today as Iran. In
the process of doing this, he also restored Jerusalem to the Jews and
conquered Babylonia. About 200 years later, in 333 B.C., Alexander the Great
came in and took over Persia, but a century later the Persians regained Persia
from the help of the Pathians. In 226 A.D. the Persians lost and gave over
Persia to the Sassanian Persians.
Later in the 7th century, Arab people brought over the religion of Islam to
Persia, pushing aside their first religion of Zoroastrian. This initially
dominant religion still stuck around for hundreds of years despite the
Islamic take over.
In the eleventh century, Seljuk Turks dominated for a Persia before
overrun by Mongols under the rule of Genghis Khan. Then came
Tamelane and his Mongol Hordes, and after that the Turkomans took over.
The Turkomans were overrun by Ismail I, who said that he was a descent
from the great Ali. He became extremely popular and began the Safavid
dynasty which lasted from 1502 to 1736 during his rule Shiism became the
national religion. In 1736 the Afghans conquered Ali and started the Afshar
dynasty followed by the Zand dynasty in 1750. The Zand dynasty ended in
1794 when Agha Muhammad Khan, a ruler who was cruel to the people
promoted himself to Shah which is ruler of the country, and began the
Qajar dynasty. In 1923, Reza Shah Pahavi came into Iran and pronounced
himself prime minister. In 1925, he became elected Shah and ended the
Qajar dynasty. Pahavi?s son took over in the 1940s when World War II
started.
Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi married and had a son, Prince Reza
Pahlavi in 1960. He maintained close alliance with the United States during
this time by signing a defense agreement. In 1963, the Shah formed a
committee to form a program of modernization through land reform and
industrializing Iran. This plan caused corruption in many of the people.
The Shah used the army and secret police to control