Ideal Healt And Insurence System


The development of liberal thought began in the seventeen-century England. Often, constitutional monarchy is perceived as a beginning of liberalism. Growth of commercial middle classes and wealth accumulation and consumption, leaded to a new, individualistic morality.
The individual is a basic unit of the liberalism ideology. Supreme goals of a liberal political system are preservation of the individual and attainment of individual happiness. That includes the preservation of the individual properties, that is individual life, liberty and estate, and the task of the government was to help the individual in doing so. Individual is to be regarded as inviolable and human life as a sacrosanct, so the violence is prohibited except in preservation of liberal society. This ideology respects all persons as moral beings with equal sensitivity (but at the same time it doesn't take women in account.). Individual is assumed to be essentially rational, so it could be considered the prime source of value, which determines justification of participatory rather than authoritarian government. Liberalism diminishes importance of social whole, which is considered not to have any rights against individuals. This outlook can be called ?atomistic?. Liberal theorists are unwilling to invoke concepts such as the common good and public interests. The only common good they want recognize is the maximization of the aggregate of individual benefits.
On the economic side 18th- and 19th-century liberalism based itself on the sovereignty of the market and the natural harmony of interests. On this view, if individuals are left free to pursue their self-interest in an exchange economy based upon a division of labour, the welfare of the group as a whole will necessarily be enhanced. Classical liberal economists describe a self-adjusting market mechanism free from all teleological influences. While moral goals are invoked and ethical criteria presupposed in passing ultimate judgment on the system, they play no part in determining the sequence of events within it. The one propelling force is the selfishness of the individual, which becomes harnessed to the public good because in an exchange economy he must serve others in order to serve himself. It is only in a free market, however, that this consequence can ensue; any other arrangement must lead to regimentation, exploitation, and economic stagnation.
Spiritual side of individual was acknowledged in assumption that man is a free, rational and self ? improving being, and that his natural state is freedom. The duty of government was to provide the conditions to individual to enjoy the maximum possible freedom within a frame of law.
The hallmark of the liberalism is a concern with the limits of authority and opposition to state interference with individual activities. Classical Liberals tend to define freedom in negative forms, for example, freedom from government regulation, and to opposite to almost all government activity. The role of the state is to perform as a device for performing the residual tasks which individual self-interest leaves undone. The guiding principle of historical liberalism has been an undeviating insistence on limiting the power of government. The main concept is that economic freedom is a key to individual liberty.
On the other hand--and this is a basic difference between classical and contemporary liberalism--most liberals now believe that the dispensations of the market, as it has in fact operated, must be supplemented and corrected in substantive ways. They contend that enormous social costs incurred in production are not reflected in market prices, and that