History Cheat Note

Justinian's court was much like the Eastern's rule; the subjects were spaced
from the rulers in space, dress and obedience. The laws were in Latin, even
though the common language was Greek. 2.  622- Heraclius opened a
successful attack on the Persians.  628- At Ctesiphon a peace treat was
signed in favor of Heraclius  632- Muhammad's followers conquered and
ran the Empire.  717-718- Leo III beat back Muslim attack on

Constantinople. 3. Iconoclastic policy under Leo III forbid showing respect to
holy images within churches and it also allowed the destruction of then images.

This had a disastrous effect but brought the Western and Eastern churches
together. 4. The issues that indicate how the Byzantium Emperor was associated
with the church while also acting as the secular head of the state has to do
with his responsibilities in protecting and aiding in the perseverance of his
empire. This is what the people of the empire thought God wanted, so by doing
his job emperor was thought as a holy figure, which placed him as the head of
the churches with some restrictions. 5. The Byzantium Empire bureaucracy
differed from the Roman Empire in that the Roman Empire did not have a fiscal
system, a state postal service or a secret police. They also collected money
from the 10 percent tariff on trade and from the monopolies, while the Roman

Empire did not have a budget. The Byzantium bureaucracy had skilled diplomats,
which kept the enemies divided and used bribes, tributes and subsides, the Roman

Empire used a basic administration without a professional civil service. The

Eubuchs were used for important positions in the government in the Byzantium

Empire, while queens and woman of the court preformed that job in the Roman

Empire. 6. The Byzantine bureaucracy was run mostly by the emperor, who also
controlled justice, with the aid of a civil service. The government had a fiscal
system, a state postal service and a secrete army. It collected a 10 percent tax
from the trade and more money from state monopolies. The Eunuchs filled the most
important positions in the government. 7. Roman Catholic Greek Orthodox Control
of the Churches Clergy Emperor Filioque dispute Holy spirit proceeds from the

Father and from the Son Holy spirit proceeds only from the father Rules for
churches No divorce and no married priests Divorce because of adultery and
married priests Languages Latin and no vernacular languages Allowed vernacular
languages (Greek, Coptic...) Centralization Centralized control over

Christianity under the papacy Relied on secular authority for the individual
churches Conversion of Slavs Used force to gain more land and to convert people

Converted Slavs and Serbs into Christianity 8. As a result of Cyrillic and

Methodius' work, today the Serbs and Slavs are Christians. 9. The Byzantium
society was divided into two parts, the urban and rural. In the urban parts
there were paved and illuminated streets and magnificent churches and palaces.

The rich lived along excellent surroundings in huge palaces and where divided
from the poor, who lived in sprawling slums with a criminal environment. The
rural society consisted of soldier/sailor farmers and laborers. The farmers made
decisions about uncultivated or common land, collected taxes, elected judges and
other officials needed for the government. 10. Guilds were creates to ensure the
products had good quality. These guilds helped make a state monopoly and the
products produced where sent all over the world giving the empire more money.

11. The women's role in the Byzantium Empire where centered on the home with
limitations in contacting with men outside the family. The Byzantine women wore
veils over their heads, but not their faces. The nuns where not allowed to
perform charity work or run schools. The only women who had power were those
that were at the imperial and aristocratic level. Poor women had to aid in
family agriculture, become street vendors, enter the theater or become
prostitutes. The male relatives protected the women and children, but the women
did have protection for their goods, money and land. In the East women were
discouraged by the churches to remarry. There were three types of institutions
of higher learning: a palace school for the laymen, trained civil servants in
language, law and rhetoric; patriarchal schools instructed priests in rhetoric
and theology; and monastic schools taught young monks the mystical writings of
the past. With the decrease of public grammar schools in the sixth and seventh
centuries, the poor depended on their guild for their education. The boys were
learned Greek from a Psalter instead of from classical authors. After the sixth
century scholars