On the date of July 21, 1899 Ernest Hemingway, a now known brilliant writer, was
born. Hemingway was conceivably the only writer to achieve the combination of
international celebrity and literary stature in the twentieth century. Hemingway was
brought up in the village of Oak Park, Illinois, close to the prairies and woods west of
Chicago. Both here and in Michigan, he could explore, camp, fish and hunt with his father,
Dr. Clarence Hemingway. In Chicago he would attend concerts, operas and visit art
museums with his mother, a musician and an artist. Hemingway attended Oak Park and
River Forest High School, where he was an active writer. He wrote articles, poems and
stories for the school's publications largely based on his own experiences.
The year Hemingway graduated he quickly secured a job with the Kansas City Star.
There he received a writing style sheet that instructed: ?Use short sentences. Use short
first paragraphs. Use vigorous English.? (Parshall 1). These were rules he never forgot to
incorporate into his works to get to the heart of a story.
The following year he entered World War I as a volunteer with American Red
Cross ambulance unit as a driver. There he was wounded near the Italian/Austrian front.
Hospitalized, he fell in love with his nurse, who later called off their relationship.
After World War I, Hemingway returned to northern Michigan to read, write, fish,
and later to work for the Toronto Star in Canada. In 1921 married his first wife and
moved to Paris. In Paris he continued to write for the Toronto Star as a foreign
During his stay in Europe through the 1920's, Ernest was influenced by eccentric
writers like Gertrude Stein and Ezra Pound their literary compression. Hemingway's use of
these methods in short stories and novels that captured the attention of critics and the
In the 1930's, he turned to writing for causes, including democracy as he knew it in
the Spanish Civil War and World War II. In each conflict he sought support for the side he
favored. But he insisted on impartially describing the truth of both wars, which he knew
from firsthand experience.
In the years following World War II, many critics said Hemingway's best writing
was past. He surprised many of the critics when the novel, The Old Man and the Sea, was
published.. This work led to his Pulitzer Prize in 1952. Two years later he received the
Nobel Prize for his ?powerful, style-making mastery of the art or modern narration?
(Griffin 1) for The Old Man and the Sea.
Hemingway's years following these awards saw few works as successful as his
novel or earlier writings. Hemingway was devastated that he could no longer write as he
once did. During 1961 Hemingway, troubled by high blood pressure and mental
depression, received shock treatments during two long confinements at the Mayo Clinic in
Rochester, Minnesota. He died July 2, 1961 at his home in Ketchum, Idaho, as a result of
self-inflicted gunshot wounds and was buried in Ketchum. But as he had hoped, his
writing lives on. His works continue to sell very well and are translated in an amazing
variety of languages around the world.
?For Ernest Hemingway, the secondary world which he constructed in his many
stories and novels served as a mirror to reflect his beliefs about the world in which he
lived? (Relations to Fact Through Fiction 1). Even though he reflected his beliefs in his
works he never portrayed himself as the hero. Instead Hemingway created a hero that
followed the same general code in all of his works. We generally, call this man the code
hero?this because he represents a code according to which the hero, if he could attain it,
would be able to live properly in the world of violence, disorder, and misery to which he
has been introduced and which he inhabits. The code hero, then, offers up and exemplifies
certain principles of honor, courage, and endurance which in a life of tension and pain
make a man, as we say, and enable him to conduct himself well in the losing battle that is
The Hemingway hero of ?The Snows of Kilimanjaro? is Harry. Harry is self
pitying and views his present diseased state as the culmination of poor choices and false,
convenient values. However, through final, confrontation with his own mortality, he
achieved self-redemption.
In ?The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber? Francis is the Hemingway hero
because he had courage and faced his fears. If Francis would not have