Health And Insurance System

The development of liberal thought began in the seventeen-century England.

Often, constitutional monarchy is perceived as a beginning of liberalism. Growth
of commercial middle classes and wealth accumulation and consumption, leaded to
a new, individualistic morality. The individual is a basic unit of the
liberalism ideology. Supreme goals of a liberal political system are
preservation of the individual and attainment of individual happiness. That
includes the preservation of the individual properties, that is individual life,
liberty and estate, and the task of the government was to help the individual in
doing so. Individual is to be regarded as inviolable and human life as a
sacrosanct, so the violence is prohibited except in preservation of liberal
society. This ideology respects all persons as moral beings with equal
sensitivity (but at the same time it doesn't take women in account.).

Individual is assumed to be essentially rational, so it could be considered the
prime source of value, which determines justification of participatory rather
than authoritarian government. Liberalism diminishes importance of social whole,
which is considered not to have any rights against individuals. This outlook can
be called "atomistic". Liberal theorists are unwilling to invoke concepts
such as the common good and public interests. The only common good they want
recognize is the maximization of the aggregate of individual benefits. On the
economic side 18th- and 19th-century liberalism based itself on the sovereignty
of the market and the "natural harmony of interests." On this view, if
individuals are left free to pursue their self-interest in an exchange economy
based upon a division of labour, the welfare of the group as a whole will
necessarily be enhanced. Classical liberal economists describe a self-adjusting
market mechanism free from all teleological influences. While moral goals are
invoked and ethical criteria presupposed in passing ultimate judgment on the
system, they play no part in determining the sequence of events within it. The
one propelling force is the selfishness of the individual, which becomes
harnessed to the public good because in an exchange economy he must serve others
in order to serve himself. It is only in a free market, however, that this
consequence can ensue; any other arrangement must lead to regimentation,
exploitation, and economic stagnation. Spiritual side of individual was
acknowledged in assumption that man is a free, rational and self ? improving
being, and that his natural state is freedom. The duty of government was to
provide the conditions to individual to enjoy the maximum possible freedom
within a frame of law. The hallmark of the liberalism is a concern with the
limits of authority and opposition to state interference with individual
activities. Classical Liberals tend to define freedom in negative forms, for
example, freedom from government regulation, and to opposite to almost all
government activity. The role of the state is to perform as a device for
performing the residual tasks which individual self-interest leaves undone. The
guiding principle of historical liberalism has been an undeviating insistence on
limiting the power of government. The main concept is that economic freedom is a
key to individual liberty. On the other hand--and this is a basic difference
between classical and contemporary liberalism--most liberals now believe that
the dispensations of the market, as it has in fact operated, must be
supplemented and corrected in substantive ways. They contend that enormous
social costs incurred in production are not reflected in market prices, and that
resources are used wastefully. Not least, liberals charge that the market
advances the allocation of human and physical resources in the direction of
satisfying superficial wants (for oversized motor cars and unnecessary gadgets),
while basic needs (for schools, housing, rapid public transit, sewage treatment
plants) go unmet. Finally, although liberals believe that prices, wages, and
profits should continue to be subject to negotiation among the interested
parties and responsive to conventional market pressures, they insist that
price-wage-profit decisions affecting the economy as a whole must be reconciled
with public policy. Socialists, on the other hand define human beings as
creatures formed by the environment. The human nature is eminently sociable, and
formed by society. Doctrine subsumes individual interests under "general
interests". The individual gives up most of the power over herself to gain the
fraction of power over every other citizen. Socialists assume that human beings
are creative (homo faber) and can find pleasure and fulfillment in work.

Socialist freedom is the freedom to develop ones potential through unalienated
work. Also, optimistically, natural sociability and good will between people are
assumed, so cooperation and collectivism are uppermost. Fraternity and community
are expressions of the socialist belief in human essential sociability and
solidarity. If the premise that people are naturally sociable