European Exploration and Settlement


European Exploration and Settlement

I.  Europeans Look to New Worlds For Many Reasons.
A.  Renaissance- revival of classical art, literature, and learning.
    1.  Took place in Europe in 15th and 16th centuries.
    2.  Sparked imaginations and made people eager to explore.
B.  Protestant Reformation
    1.  Challenged Catholics who in turn persecuted Protestants.
    2.  Protestants longed for a place where they could worship                as they wanted.
C.  European Nations Begin to Form Stable Governments and              Resolve Power Struggles.
D.  Trying to Find a Quicker Route to Asia and Start Up a Rich            Trade.
E.  New Developments in Travel.
    1.  Caravel- more maneuverable and quicker ship, moved with            and against wind.
    2.  Navigation- charting of a course at sea.
    3.  Instruments- Astrolabe, the quadrant, and the cross- staff.

II.  Spain Leads The Way
A.  Spain was the leading nation in the Age of Discovery due to            its search for wealth.
    1.  Wanted to find a quicker route to Asia.
    2.  Tired os paying the middlemen large profits.
    3.  Desired gold, silk, jewels, and spices.
B.  Columbus Stumbles On a New World
    1.  Christopher Columbus set out to prove world was round.
    2.  Queen Isabella agreed to arrange an expedition for                         Columbus.
    3.  His ships were the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria                 which set sail August 3,
    4.  When they finally reached land they thought they landed               on India and natives were
called Indians.
    5.  In reality, they landed in the Bahamas on an Island                        Columbus named San
Salvador- October 12, 1492.
C.  Seekers of Gold and Glory
    1.  Amerigo Vespucci- found land that was not Asia but a                    great continent.  A few
years later a map-maker named the             new continent "America" in honor of Amerigo Vespucci.
    2.  Balboa- Spanish explorer crossed Isthmus of Panama in       1513- first European to
see Pacific Ocean.
    3.  Explorers more interested in acquiring gold and power           than in finding new
    4.  Conquistadors- these were the conquerors who overcame               whole civilizations of
native people.
    5.  Most famous was Cortés who, in 1519, took over the Aztec             empire and its ruler
Montezuma in Mexico.
    6.  Pizarro who, in 1535, destroyed the Inca empire in the                   heart of Peru.
    7.  Coronado 1540-1542 discovered the Grand Canyon on an             expedition to the
    8.  De Soto explored southern U.S.- first European to reach the            Mississippi River.
    9.  Most conquistadors were ruthless.
   a.  Treated natives cruelly by enslaving and killing them.
   b.  Gold, silver, and sugar made Spanish wealthy and opened up vast area.

III.  England, France, and the Netherlands Stake Claims
A.  Spain's power made the rest of Europe nervous especially             Protestant England since
Spain was Catholic.
B.  The Search for the Northwest Passage.
    1.  Europeans wanted quick trade route to Asia.
    2.  Hoped to find Northwest Passage- northern water way                   connecting Atlantic and
Pacific oceans.
    3.  Found Northwest Passage in 1906 in the frozen waters of             Canada.
C.  A Series of Discoveries
    1.  John Cabot 1497 sailed to New Found-land and Nova                   Scotia, found lots of fish
but England was too busy with                 other affairs to take notice.
    2.  Verazano 1524 explored eastern coastline of North                         America from North
Carolina to New Found-land.
    3.  Cartier 1535 explored Gulf of St. Lawrence and St.                Lawrence River and
marked France's dominance on              Canada.
    4.  Henry Hudson found Hudson River and planted seeds of             New Nether land ( New
    5.  Explorers blaze paths, settlers move in.

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