Even since a little lamb came forward saying that cloning of mammals is possible the world has been in a state of bewilderment. This means that if cloning a sheep is possible, how far away are humans? Is there a new generation of Dr. Frankensteins coming? I hope to answer this question, the process of cloning, the positive and negative aspects, ethical aspects, and an authors view of cloning all the way back from the 1940's. The basics however, are the first part.
The process of cloning is involved. This process includes both embryo and adult DNA cloning. Embryo cloning, which was been around the longest, is the less complicated of the two. Embryo cloning is not really cloning for say. It is more of a twinning process. It has been used in mice since the late 1970's and other animals since the 1980's. The process is really quite simple. An egg and sperm are mixed together in a petri dish. When conception occurs the zygote develops into a blastula. After dividing into a couple stages, a chemical is added to remove the "zona pelocide" which promotes cell division. The blastula is then divided into separate cells, recoated, and then allowed to further develop. Adult DNA cloning however is a little more complicated.
Adult DNA cloning was thought to be impossible until Dolly was created. It involves the use of nuclear transfer technology ("Human Cloning"). It was used quite successfully in the past, especially for embryo cloning, but never for primates (Baker). It is also noteworthy that Robert J. Stillman and his colleges at the George Washington Medical Center were the first group to go public to say it is possible. They took seventeen unusable embryos (each had two sperm for fertilization) and managed to split each successfully. They also reported on the best ways to split them and how long they should be allowed to develop. All of the zygotes had the potential to become a fetus had they not been previously defective ("Human Cloning").
The limits on cloning are very undecided now. The limits on Dr. Wilmut were very significant; it took him 277 tries to produce one Dolly (Motavalli). And it is not the scientific limits that everyone is worried about, its congressional limits. Dolly's creator, Dr. Wilmut is in favor of a limit for human cloning because he feels his progress can be used elsewhere better ("Dolly"). Republican George Brown of California stated, "It is significant that Congress followed the lead of the scientific in discussing those issues. George E. Brown stated, "It is significant that Congress followed the lead of the scientific community in discussing those issues. It caused us to curb our instincts to go out and regulate everything" (Baker). While some argue its unethical, its been said that a ban or restriction would halt some very important benefits such as human skin for bone marrow transplants (Baker). Dolly however does not care and "? is free from those limits now, and from the threat of a revedezous with mint sauce, lives out her days in ovine luxury in Scotland. Scientists say they plan to breed her someday soon. No cloning, though; this time, they're going to do it the old fashioned way - by artificial insemination ("Dolly").
People are very split when it comes to taking sides on cloning. The positive aspects of cloning are very numerous. Gina Kolata of the New York Times and author of Clone has said,
"I think a lot of people who initially found it repugnant now feel it may not be so bad. We can make identical twins of ourselves and from there we can make identical twins resistant to aids ("Dolly").
It is also very possible that in the very near future, farms will have cloned animals that help humans. It is possible that the proteins in a cow's milk could treat such diseases as hemophilia. Cloning could cause a better understanding of the pregnancy process. It may even lead to a way to stop spontaneous abortions. It could also help women who can not bring a fetus to term. Another benefit is the way human morula develop is similar to that of cancer, so it is believed that if there is a way to stop the division of cells is found,