Drugs And Crime

Use federal tax dollars to fund these therapeutic communities in prisons. I feel
that if we teach these prisoners some self-control and alternative lifestyles
that we can keep them from reentering the prisons once they get out. I am also
going to describe some of today's programs that have proven to be very
effective. Gottfredson and Hirschi developed the general theory of crime. It

According to their theory, the criminal act and the criminal offender are
separate concepts. The criminal act is perceived as opportunity; illegal
activities that people engage in when they perceive them to be advantageous.

Crimes are committed when they promise rewards with minimum threat of pain or
punishment. Crimes that provide easy, short-term gratification are often
committed. The number of offenders may remain the same, while crime rates
fluctuate due to the amount of opportunity (Siegel 1998). Criminal offenders are
people that are predisposed to committing crimes. This does not mean that they
have no choice in the matter, it only means that their self-control level is
lower than average. When a person has limited self-control, they tend to be more
impulsive and shortsighted. This ties back in with crimes that are committed
that provide easy, short-term gratification. These people do not necessarily
have a tendency to commit crimes, they just do not look at long-term
consequences and they tend to be reckless and self-centered (Longshore 1998,
pp.102-113). These people with lower levels of self-control also engage in
non-criminal acts as well. These acts include drinking, gambling, smoking, and
illicit sexual activity (Siegel 1998). Also, drug use is a common act that is
performed by these people. They do not look at the consequences of the drugs,
while they get the short-term gratification. Sometimes this drug abuse becomes
an addiction and then the person will commit other small crimes to get the drugs
or them money to get the drugs. In a mid-western study done by Evans et al.
(1997, pp. 475-504), there was a significant relationship between self-control
and use of illegal drugs. The problem is once these people get into the criminal
justice system, it is hard to get them out. After they do their time and are
released, it is much easier to be sent back to prison. Once they are out, they
revert back to their impulsive selves and continue with the only type of life
they know. They know short-term gratification, the "quick fix" if you
will. Being locked up with thousands of other people in the same situation as
them is not going to change them at all. They break parole and are sent back to
prison. Since the second half of the 1980's, there has been a large growth in
prison and jail populations, continuing a trend that started in the 1970's.

The proportion of drug users in the incarcerated population also grew at the
same time. By the end of the 1980's, about one-third of those sent to state
prisons had been convicted of a drug offense; the highest in the country's
history (Reuter 1992, pp. 323-395). With the arrival of crack use in the

1980's, the strong relationship between drugs and crime got stronger. The use
of cocaine and heroin became very prevalent. Violence on the streets that is
caused by drugs got the public's attention and that put pressure on the police
and courts. Consequently, more arrests were made. While it may seem good at
first that these people are locked up, with a second look, things are not that
good. The cost to John Q. Taxpayer for a prisoner in Ohio for a year is around
$30,000 (Phipps 1998). That gets pretty expensive when you consider that there
are more than 1,100,000 people in United States prisons today (Siegel 1998).

Many prisoners are being held in local jails because of overcrowding. This rise
in population is largely due to the number of inmates serving time for drug
offenses (Siegel 1998). This is where therapeutic communities come into play.

The term "therapeutic community" has been used in many different forms of
treatment, including residential group homes and special schools, and different
conditions, like mental illness, alcoholism, and drug abuse (Lipton 1998,
pp.106-109). In the United States, therapeutic communities are used in the
rehabilitation of drug addicts in and out of prison. These communities involve a
type of group therapy that focuses more on the person a whole and not so much
the offense they committed or their drug abuse. They use a "community of
peers" and role models rather than professional clinicians. They focus on
lifestyle changes and tend to be more holistic (Lipton 1998, pp.