Culture In International Marketing And Buyer Hehavior

Index
Introduction
Characteristics of culture
International Marketing and buyer behavior
Examples of Cultural Blunders Made by International Marketers
The Culture Sensitivity of Markets
The Development of Global Culture
Cultural Analysis of Global Markets
Cross- cultural analysis
Conclusion
References
Introduction
Culture is the learned ways of group living and the group’s responses to various stimuli. It is also the total way of life and thinking patterns that are passed from generation to generation. It encompasses norms, values, customs, art, and beliefs.
Culture is the patterns of behavior and thinking that people living in social groups learn, create, and share.
Culture distinguishes one human group from others. A people's culture includes their beliefs, rules of behavior, language, rituals, art, technology, styles of dress, ways of producing and cooking food, religion, and political and economic systems. Anthropologists commonly use the term culture to refer to a society or group in which many or all people live and think in the same ways. Likewise, any group of people who share a common culture—and in particular, common rules of behavior and a basic form of social organization—constitutes a society. Thus, the terms culture and society are somewhat interchangeable.
Characteristics of culture:
Culture is prescriptive. It prescribes that kinds of behavior considered acceptable in the society. The prescriptive characteristic of culture simplifies a consumer’s decision-making process by limiting product choices to those, which are socially acceptable. These same characteristics create problems for those products not in tune with the consumer’s cultural beliefs.
Culture is socially shared. Culture cannot exist by itself. Members of a society must share it. Thus acting to reinforce culture’s perspective nature.
Culture is learned. Culture is not inherited genetically; it must be learned and acquired. Socialization or enculturation occurs when a person absorbs or learns the culture in which he or she is raised.
Culture facilitates communication. One useful function provided by culture is to facilitate communication. Culture usually imposes common habits of though and feeling among people. Thus, within a given group culture makes it easier for people to communicate with one another. But culture may also impede communication across groups because of a lack of shared common culture values.
This one reason why a standardized advertisement may have difficulty communicating with consumers in foreign countries. How marketing efforts interact with a culture determines the success or failure of a product. Advertising and promotion require special attention because the play a key role in communicating product concepts and benefits to the target segment.
Culture is subjective people in different cultures often have different ideas about the same object. What is acceptable in one culture may not necessarily be so in another. In this regard, culture is both unique and arbitrary.
Culture is enduring, because culture is shared and passed along from generation to generation, it is relatively stable and somewhat permanent. Old habits are hard to break, and people and people tend to maintain its own heritage in spite of continuously changing world.
Culture is cumulative. Culture is based on hundreds or even thousands of years of accumulated circumstances. Each generation adds something of its own of culture before passing the heritage on to the next generation. Therefore culture tends to be broader based over time, because new ideas are incorporated and become a part of the culture.
Culture is dynamic. Culture is passed along from generation to generation, but one should not assume that culture is static and immune to change. Culture is constantly changing it adapts itself to new situations and new sources of knowledge.
International Marketing and buyer behavior:
An understanding of buyer behavior is central to successful marketing. To develop effective marketing programs, the marketing manager must have knowledge of the needs and wants of potential buyers, how they arise, and how and where they are likely to be satisfied. Buyer behavior is affected by many factors.
Class, education, age, and psychosocial traits are just four of the many factors useful in distinguishing different buyer groups. Researching the relationships that exist between the marketing-mix variables and buyer needs and response. From this effort have evolved many buyer behavior models, concepts, and techniques.
* International Marketing’s Four Buyer Behavior Tasks
Apparent similarities such as language can hide subtle but important differences between markets. International marketers have often shown a higher propensity to misinterpret a marketing situation when the cultural and economic environments of