Cloning
Introduction:

Have you ever wandered what it would be like to have a
clone, or what it would be like have a twin? Well in a few
years you might be able to clone yourself. That's if they
legalize it in the US

I. What is cloning?

Cloning is the scientific process of combining the DNA
of one organism with the egg of another. Creating a perfect
genetically matched lifeform. In other words getting an
egg and fertilizing it. Then putting it back in the a
surrogate mother.

II. Who cloned Dolly?

Scottish embryologist named Ian Wilmut cloned a Finn
Dorset lamb named Dolly from fully different adult mother
cells.
A. Education
Wilmut was born in Hampton Lucey, England, attended the
University of Nottingham for his undergraduate work. In 1971
he received a Ph. D. in animal genetic engineering from
Darwin College of University of Cambridge. In 1974, he
joined the Animal Research Breeding Station in Scotland,
which is now known as the Roslyn Institute, and has
conducted research there ever since.
B. Accomplishments
In 1973, he created the first calf ever produced from a
frozen embryo which he named Frosty. In 1995 he created
Megan and Morag, two Welsh mountain sheep cloned from
differentiated embryo cells.
In July 5, 1996 he created a lamb called dolly, with
the help of Keith Campbell

III. How did they clone Dolly?

In 1990, Wilmut hired cell cycle biologist Keith
Campbell to assist in his cloning studies. Their work
produced its first success with the birth of Megan and
Morag, two Welsh mountain sheep cloned from different embryo
cells. In their success, Wilmut and Campbell pioneered a new
technique of starving embryo cells before transferring their
nucleus to fertilized egg cells. The technique synchronized
the cell cycles of both cells and their results led Wilmut
and Campbell to believe that any type of cell could be used
to produce a clone.
On July 5, 1996, Wilmut and Campbell used the same
process to produce the first clone from adult cells ,a Finn
Dorset lamb named Dolly ,after Dolly Parton. The
announcement left the scientific community shocked as well
as the public, and kicked off a large-scale debate on the
ethics and direction of cloning research.

IV. What other animals did they clone?

February 16, 1998 US Scientists cloned a Holstein cow
Using DNA from the cell of a 30 day old fetus, scientists in
the United States were able to clone a calf.
They named the Holstein calf, Gene.
July 5, 1998 a cow was cloned into two calves in Japan
Using cells from an adult cow, Japanese scientists cloned
the cow into two calves born Sunday, July 5, 1998.
July 22, 1998 Mice are cloned. It was announced in the
press that Dr. Yanagimachi from the University of Hawaii and
colleagues had successfully cloned mice.
August 19, 1998 Scientists announce that a near-extinct
species has been cloned. David Wells, led the effort at the
Ruakura Research Center in Hamilton, New Zealand to clone
the last cow a species that once inhabited Enderby Island in
the Aukland Islands.
A dog named Missy, is to be cloned. The Press announced
8/25/98 that a wealthy couple donated $2.3 million to Texas
A & M University to clone their dog. Dr. Mark Westhusin,
co-director of the Reproductive Sciences Laboratory, is one
of the scientists involved in the project. Lou Hawthorne,
president of Bio Arts and Research Corporation, a San
Francisco corporation, helped negotiate the deal. The donors
wish to remain anonymous.

V. How can cloning help us?

Cloning can help in many ways. It can help us
cure many diseases like infertility, Down's syndrome. It
can help us get rid world hunger. With cloning technology,
instead of using materials foreign to the body such as
silicon, doctors will be able to manufacture bone, fat,
connective tissue, or cartilage that matches the patients
tissues exactly. It can make foods healthier for us.

VI. Why is cloning bad?

If a large percentage of an nation's cattle are
identical clones, a virus, such as mad cow disease, could
effect the entire population. The result could be
catastrophic food shortages in that nation. Cloning may
cause people to settle for the best existing animals, not
allowing for improvement of the species. In this way,
cloning could potentially interfere with natural evolution.
Cloning is currently an expensive process. Cloning
requires large amounts of money and biological expertise.
Ian Wilmut and his associates required 277 tries before
producing Dolly. A new cloning technique has recently been
developed which is far more reliable. However, even this
technique has 2-3% success rate.