Cloning Issue


Cloning Issue

For the last few decades, cloning was a fictitious idea that lay deep within the
pages of some sci-fi novels. The very idea that cloning could one day become
reality was thought to be a scientific impossibility by many experts but on one
exhilarating day, what was thought to be "purely fiction" became reality.

That fine day was February 22, 1997. A team from the Roslin Institute which was
lead by Dr. Ian Wilmut changed the face of history forever by revealing what
looked like an average sheep. That sheep was what was going to be one of the
most famous if not the most famous sheep in modern day. Dolly was this seven
month old Trojan lamb’s name and Dolly was the first ever clone of a mammal.

She was an exact biological carbon copy, a laboratory counterfeit of her mother.

In essence, Dolly was her mother’s biological twin. What surprised most
thought, was not just the fact that Dolly was a clone but was that the trick to

Wilmut and his team’s success was a trick that was so ingenious yet so simple
that any skilled laboratory technician could master it. Therein, lied a pathway
towards a new future. This news shocked the world for Dolly was the key to many
new and prosperous possibilities. But Dolly was not the first clone ever.

Cloning of a more limited sort had been done before her. Creatures such as mice,
frogs and salamanders had been cloned from as early as the 1950’s. Then, a
different procedure was used. This procedure included the destruction of the
nucleus inside the egg cell. Then a new "donor" cell would be brought and
injected into the egg cell as a replacement. The egg would then grow into an
progeny of the same genetic make-up as the donor. Later on in the 1970’s a new
technique was developed. This technique included transferring the genes from one
organism to another by combining the DNA from a plant or animal cell with the

DNA in bacteria. When the bacteria divided the cells were now the clones of both
plant/animal DNA as well as the DNA it had originally. This cloning technique
allowed for the growth of many endocrine system treatments such as hormone,
insulin and interferon. In 1993, researchers in the US began and successfully
cloned a human embryo in order to develop new ways to treat human infertility.

This was accomplished using the DNA technique (the bacteria method) but stirred
up enormous vehement outcries for the public considered this "pushing
technology just too far". Soon after in the mid 1990’s, a team from the

Roslin Institute (the creators of Dolly) discovered a new and more efficient
method of cloning. A method that was so simple, any in-veto lab could of done it
fifty years ago; A method that was of great simplicity but it also allowed the
lab technician to pick their desired healthy, mature sheep instead of the usual
random lamb. This resulted in a better sheep. The scientists did not have to
take there chances with nature now. This method of cloning was one of great
similarity to the procedure created in the 50’s. An egg cell was taken from
the udder of the Finn Dorset ewe and placed in low concentrate to allow the cell
to stop dividing. Then the nucleus of a Blackface ewe along with its DNA was
sucked out leaving an empty cell with all the necessary cellular machinery to
successfully produce a embryo. Using the two cells, (the cell from the Finn

Dorset and the cell from the Blackface) an electric pulse was created by placing
them next to one another. Then another electric pulse was created which mimicked
that of the one before it. This summoned the cells to begin divide. As the cells
grew in number, a embryo slowly began to be made and soon it was ready to be
injected back into the body of another sheep. Using this same or a similar
procedure, a human clone may one day be born. A group of American scientists
lead by Richard Seed have decided to give it a try and on January 6, 1998 they
announced that the start of human cloning would be soon under way. Seed claimed
that his purposes were solely for infertile couples (couples who are unable to
produce a baby) and not meant for misuse. Seed’s soon-to-be experiment has
been creating lots of controversy between the ethics of human cloning. This
issue is rapidly becoming a

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