Christmas Carol
"A Christmas Carol" by Charles Dickens, is a story that is rich in
metaphors that ultimately questions the morals and ethics of the author's
society during the time of hislife, the industrial revolutionized society. In
the story, the main character, Ebenezer Scrooge, is a greedy, rich accountant
who is visited by his old business partner ghost, Jacob Marley. Marley's ghost
tells Scrooge that he may face a penalty of becoming a lost soul if he continues
to value money more than anything else in his life. He also foretells that

Scrooge will be visited by three other ghosts that will give him the chance to
redeem himself, and he can break an iron chain of greed that he has woven. Each
time a ghost visits Scrooge, he will become more aware of the failures of the
society he lives in. The ghosts will also let Scrooge see his contributions to
those failures. As Dickens writes the story of the three visits, we are able to
out more about Scrooge's inner self-character. We learn this about him as he
finds out about his own fellow man and his community. The crux of the story is
alluded to in the ingenious metaphors Dickens creeates to illustrate his own
reflection on Nineteenth Century society. In the beginning of the story, Scrooge
and his assistant Bob Cratchit are working at Scrooge's counting house on a very
cold night, Christmas Eve. Scrooge's offices are nearly freezing, because of
the dreadful weather. They depend on using coal to keep warm. Scrooge is
satisfied with a very small fire that he barely keeps going. More than that he
thinks is unnecessary warmth. On the other hand, Bob Cratchit's fire is nothing
but one dying morsel of coal. "Scrooge had a very small fire, but his
clerk's fire was so very much smaller that it looked like one coal." The
irony in only using a small piece of coal is that they both had two entirely
different reasons for not using more coal. Bob Cratchit is Scrooge's
impoverished assistant, who can't afford to buy more coal to kindle up warmth in
his office. If he had enough money to improve his working condition, he would.

On the other hand, Scrooge had more than enough money to buy coal for his office
and Bob's. He didn't find that necessary. Dickens makes reference to this as he
shows how Scrooge doesn't find it necessary to build up more warmth in his
office, or even to offer to keep his assistant's office warm, when he writes
"But he (Bob Cratchit) couldn't replenish it (the fire), for Scrooge kept
the coal-box in his own room; and so surely as the clerk came in with the
shovel, the master predicted that it would be necessary for them to part."

The situation is much deeper than it appears. Dickens has not only created a
spiteful and stingy character, but he creates a Scrooge whose very body is cold.

The fact that Scrooge doesn't mind that his office is cold reveals that he is
both physically and mentally a cold person. Throughout literature the use of hot
and cold plays as two basic metaphors for love and hate: loneliness. Scrooge
doesn't need warmth as a result of being a malevolent and bitter person. He
doesn't have family or friends to share his love and heart with, so he developed
into a person who was numb to his own warm feelings. The only emotions that are
left are the bitter ones he has for his society. Dickens uses Marley's chains as
a metaphor as well. We should pay attention to what Marley and Scrooge were
known for. Scrooge and Marley were both concerned about their money more than
anything else that Dickens writes about. The two were so concerned about earning
money, that the two didn't care how they got it. Each of them wanted to be
alone. The chains that were "forged in life" by Marley were chains of
guilt and sin. These chains were fashioned while Marley made money at other
people's expenses, and were linked out of his lack of concern for what he did in
life. Marley, like Scrooge, knew well of the poverty most people suffered. Their
sins were that they showed no sympathy for unfortunate people. They both hid
their sympathy in order to repress their guilt. Dickens writes more about

Marley's greed when he describes Marley. "His body transparent: so that

Scrooge, observing him, and looking through his waistcoat, could see the two
buttons on his coat behind." "Scrooge had often heard it said that