Chapter 1
What Is Psychology?

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Psychology is defined as the scientific study of
|a.|behavior and mental processes. |
|b.|diagnosis and treatment of behavioral disorders. |
|c.|conscious and unconscious mental processes. |
|d.|the mind. |


ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: BTC

2. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes describes
|a.|behaviorism. |c.|psychology. |
|b.|psychoanalysis. |d.|clinical psychology. |


ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Factual

3. Eduardo DeLeon is engaged in scientific research involving the
study of behavior and mental processes. DeLeon is a
|a.|psychotherapist. |c.|psychiatrist. |
|b.|psychoanalyst. |d.|psychologist. |


ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Applied

4. As a science, Psychology has four goals. Which of the following
is NOT one of those goals?
|a.|eliminate behavior |c.|predict behavior |
|b.|explain behavior |d.|control behavior |


ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Factual

5. A __________ proposes a relationship among observed events.
|a.|science |c.|prediction |
|b.|theory |d.|school of psychology |


ANS: B DIF: 1 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Factual

6. A satisfactory psychological theory of thirst would
|a.|be able to predict when people will or will not drink. |
|b.|be able to describe age-related drinking behavior. |
|c.|both a and b. |
|d.|none of these. |


ANS: C DIF: 3 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

7. Theories allow psychologists to make __________ such as a
client's chance of recovery.
|a.|descriptions |c.|predictions |
|b.|explanations |d.|beliefs |


ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Applied

8. Which of the following is NOT true of psychological theories?
|a.|Theories make assumptions about behavior. |
|b.|Theories explain behavior and mental processes. |
|c.|Predictions are derived from theories. |
|d.|Theories are always discarded as new observations are made. |


ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Factual

9. The clinical psychologist's aim in applying prediction and
control principles to a client's behavior is to
|a.|decide the treatment. |
|b.|help the client meet his or her goals in treatment. |
|c.|allow the client a narrow range of options for his or her |
| |behavior. |
|d.|use a database to formulate a treatment for the client. |


ANS: B DIF: 3 REF: 1-4 OBJ: 1
MSC: TYPE: Applied

10. Dr. Rossini is developing a training program to help a young
woman with mental retardation to sort clothes in the laundry of the
residential facility in which she lives. Whenever she performs her job
according to the protocol, she receives a reward. If she does not stay on
task, she receives no reward. Applying the principles of learning theory to
the direct modification of human conduct is referred to as
|a.|pure research. |c.|psychoanalysis. |
|b.|basic research. |d.|the practice of psychology. |


ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

11. The results of ________ research in the study of the perceptual
development of infants and lower animals is often useful in formulating the
treatment of visual disorders in humans.
|a.|pure |c.|controlled |
|b.|basic |d.|action |


ANS: A DIF: 3 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

12. Applied research is research undertaken
|a.|with humans. |c.|for its own sake. |
|b.|with lower animals. |d.|to find solutions to specific|
| | | |problems. |


ANS: D DIF: 1 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Factual


13. The difference between pure and applied research is the
difference between
|a.|prediction and control. |
|b.|practice and theory. |
|c.|research for its own sake and research to solve specific |
| |problems. |
|d.|application and adaptation. |


ANS: C DIF: 1 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

14. Research using computers to understand artificial intelligence
is an example of __________ research.
|a.|pure |c.|longitudinal |
|b.|applied |d.|none of these |


ANS: A DIF: 2 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Applied

15. Dr. Langer is treating a college student for depression in his
private practice. Most likely Dr. Langer is a(n) __________ psychologist.
|a.|counseling |c.|educational |
|b.|school |d.|clinical |


ANS: D DIF: 2 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2
KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE: Applied

16. Jean, a divorced mother with two children, married Harry, a
widower with a teenage daughter. From the onset of her relationship with
Harry, Jean had difficulty in relating to his daughter. Once married, the
family problems between stepmother and stepdaughter became exacerbated. Who
might be consulted?
|a.|a developmental psychologist |c.|a counseling psychologist |
|b.|an educational psychologist |d.|a psychiatric social worker |


ANS: C DIF: 2 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Applied

17. Diagnosing the severity of mental illness and behavior problems
is usually the job of a(n) __________ psychologist.
|a.|clinical |c.|school |
|b.|counseling |d.|educational |


ANS: A DIF: 1 REF: 1-5 OBJ: 2
MSC: TYPE: Conceptual

18. School psychologists are employed by school districts to
|a.|develop achievement and aptitude