Biographie: Stokely Carmichael
A prominent African-American civil rights leader, Stokely Carmichael was born in 1941 in Trinidad, in the West Indies. At the age of 11, he moved with his family to New York City; he later attended Howard University in Washington, D.C., graduating in 1964 with a degree in philosophy. While a student at Howard, Mr. Carmichael was active in African-American civil rights protests and voter registration drives in the South. In the early 1960s, Mr. Carmichael was a founding member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and became its chairman in 1966. During his chairmanship, the organization shifted from a philosophy of nonviolence to that of "Black Power," encouraging African Americans to move from nonviolence to other forms of political and cultural empowerment. In 1968-69, Mr. Carmichael was prime minister of the militant Black Panther party. In 1973, he and his wife became citizens of Uganda. Mr. Carmichael is now known as Kwame Toure.

Black Power, political movement of the late 1960s, expressing a new racial consciousness among blacks in the United States. Black Power represented both a conclusion to the decade's civil rights movement and a reaction against persistent racism.
To some, Black Power represented blacks' insistence on racial dignity and self-reliance. These themes had been advanced by black Muslim leader Malcolm X, who argued that blacks should focus on improving their own communities, rather than striving for integration. Other interpreters of Black Power emphasized black cultural heritage, especially the African roots of black identity. This view encouraged study and celebration of black history and culture, and was often expressed by the wearing of African dress. Still another view of Black Power called for a revolutionary political struggle to reject racism and imperialism throughout the world. Revolutionary nationalists such as Stokely Carmichael first advocated a worldwide Marxist revolution, but later emphasized Pan-Africanism, the unity of all people of African origins.
Black Power as a political idea originated in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) during the mid-1960s, when many SNCC workers came to believe that further progress depended on independent black political power. Widespread use of the term Black Power began in 1966 during a march through Mississippi, when SNCC activists asked marchers, "What do you want?" and led the response, "Black Power!" The national media began to report on Black Power, and the movement drew condemnation from many whites. Leaders of several black organizations also denounced Black Power. Opposition became stronger in 1968, when the Black Panther Party became the most prominent organization advocating Black Power. Although the Black Power movement largely disappeared after 1970, the idea remained a powerful one in the consciousness of black Americans.