A nnotated bibliography
H uman Trafficking
July 24, 2017
A rgosy university
K athy Brooks1000000
July 24, 2017
A rgosy university
K athy Brooks

An Integrated Theoretical Framework to Describe Human Trafficking of Young Women and Girls for Involuntary Prostitution
Thozama Mandisa Lutya and Mark Lanier
Department of Social Work and Criminology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria
Department of Criminal Justice, College of Arts & Sciences, University of Alabama, AL
South Africa USA

Theore tical Design
The primary on traffic is involuntary prostitution of women, even though there are other forms of trafficking. Bruckett and Parent (2002:7) believe the processes, practices, and routes of trafficking lack consistency of theoretical framework understanding trafficking of women. Research on forced migrants need multi-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches, which m a y be divergent (Van Impe , 2000:124). Trafficking may vary and interdependent and interconnected (Stop Violence against Women (SVAW), 2008;1 Truong, 2001:34-35; Van Impe , 2000:117-118). Human traffickers trade humans for profit to generate income, because few traffickers are arrested, prosecuted and sentenced. When criminal justice and community response is ineffective it strengthens the process, increases the abuse and allows financial proceeds. An integrated model appears logical to understanding of the crime. Current research comes from individual researcher s' with their own theoretical framework as a single-dimensional type of crime. An integrated framework should enhance the prevention and control strategies utilized to reduce human trafficking of women for involuntary prostitution. Human trafficking needs an integrated framework to effectively prevent, prosecute suspects and protect the victims of human trafficking of women and girls for involuntary prostitution. Victims of human trafficking do not leave unscathed. The victim may have depression, anxiety, sexually transmitted disease, many mental disabilities, along with physical disabilities . The victims may need some therapy, for many years. The victims are starved for food and clothing and shelter, along with medical care. They are also relieved of all identification like: travel documents, work permits. These are removed for the purpose of the victim not going for help.

Evaluating the impact of Mexico's drug policy reforms on people who inject drugs in Tijuana, B.C., Mexico and San Diego, CA, United States: a binational mixed methods research agenda
Angela M Robertson, Richard S Garfein , Karla D Wagner, Sanjat R Mehta, Carlos Magis -Rodriguez, Jazmine Cuevas- Mota , Patricia Gonzalez Moreno-Zuniga and Steffanie A Strathdee for Proyecto El Cuete IV and STAHR ll

Human Trafficking of Minors and Childhood Adversity in Florida
Joan A. Reid, PhD, Michael T. Baglivio , PhD, Alex R. Piquero, PhD, Mark A. Greenwald, MPA, and Nathan Epps, MS

Mixed-Methods Study
Human trafficking takes women and young girls, for prostitution and other ways to generate income. Minors are the most victimized and most hard to investigate. The data needed for investigating minor girls is lacking. With inadequate samples researchers have tried to use quantitative analytic strategies to investigate juvenile trafficking. When a minor is picked up for trafficking they are usually labeled the offender instead of victim and become a problem in the juvenile justice system. Victimization is usually put together with drugs and alcohol abuse, so the minor is charged with drug-related charges. Risk factors include: inadequate education, limited employment, poor family support, sexual or physical abuse, mental, emotion or physical disabilities. Additional factors include: domestic violence, substance abuse, mental illness in the family , being a runaway or throwaway, drug dependent, gang membership, immaturity, and poor sexual decision making. Sexual abuse may serve as a key predictor of exp loitation in human trafficking f or both boys and girls . (Am J Public Health. 2017; 107:306-311.doi :10.2105/AJP.2016.303564)

Measuring labor trafficking: a research note
Sheldon X. Zhang
Published online: 13 September 2102
Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Quantitative studies
Current literature on human trafficking in the U.S. has focused on the sexual exploitation of women and girls. No country is exempt from human trafficking, whether as countries of origin, transit, or destination. Bales states there are two factors to slavery; 1. Increase in population in poor countries, race for work cheapens human labor; 2. Social and economic change disrupts subsistence and social support systems. Obstacles that hinder human trafficking would be a lack of systemic information of victims and inadequate capacities about