1.) Three genetic disorders are Down's syndrome, Turner's syndrome, and Red-green color blindness. They are all caused by undesirable genes inherited by normal genetic mechanisms. These mutations are usually recessive because dominant ones usually die.
Turner's Syndrome is caused by faulty cell division known as non disjunction. This occurs when chromosomes fail to separate. IN this disorder, the affected have one "x" chromosome. The effect are an underdeveloped female, mental retardedness, and sterility. Down syndrome is a condition caused by an oddosome that occurs on the pair #21. It results in severe abnormality physical and mental defects. For example, shorter bubble-shape eyes, short fingers, short necks. There are degrees of down syndrome depending on the amount of chromosomes (extra). It is also inherited, and is a common deformity. Red-green colorblindness is a deformity where red cannot be distinguished from green. This is sex linked.

2.) Water is the cradle of life. Water has many properties that make it the most important simple atomic structure. Water acts like a magnet, both the oxygen and the hydrogen atoms attract the electrons in the electrons they share in the covalent bonds of the water molecule. Water is a polar molecule, this is because water is cohesive, it forms a lattice of hydrogen bonds with itself that is a liquid and not a gas, at moderate temperatures. The cohesion of water is also responsible for its surface tension. Another property of water is its high specific strong go heat. Hydrogen bonds absorb heat when they break, and release heat when they form, minimizing temperature charges. Water is a powerful solvent, water molecules gather closely around any molecule that exhibits an electrical charge, Polar water molecules are attracted to ions and polar compounds, making them soluble. Water also organizes non polar molecules, when non polar molecules, which don't form hydrogen bonds, are placed in water, the water molecules act in such a way as to exclude them. Water also has the property to ionize. The ions of water spontaneously formate, when this happens one of the proteins dissociates from the molecule. Another property of water is that ice has a lower density than liquid. This happens because the water molecules in an ice crystal are spaced relatively far apart because of hydrogen bonding. Thsi properties of water help make it the cradle of life that plants and animals depend on for living.
















5.) The plasma membrane (or cell membrane) bounds the cell. Because of the importance of the plasma membrane as the seperator of internal metabolic events from external environment and because it controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell.. The plasma membrane consists of a double phospholipid membrane with the non polar hydrophobic tails pointing toward the inside of the membrane and the polar hydrophilic heads forming the two outer faces. Protein and cholesterol molecules are scattered throughout the flexible phospholipid membrane. The phosopholipid membrane is hydrophobic barrier to the movement of most molecule small molecules, such as h20, C2o and O2, freely pass across the membrane. Transport proteins spend ATP to transfer materials across the membrane. When energy is used for this purpose, the materials are said to be actively transported, and the process is called active transport.
There are two ways in which substance move. The first, bulk flow, is the overall movement of a group of substances. This motion is different from bulk flow because it is the motion of molecules (or atom or ions) independent from the motion of other molecules. If a concentration gradient exists, that is if the concentration of certain molecules (or atoms or ions) is different from one region to another, then the molecules which are constantly moving will eventually become evenly distributed. Diffusion occurs as a result of the random motion of the molecules.
Cannel proteins ( at syntheses) in the cristae allow the protons in the outer compartment to flow back into the matrix. The protons moving through the channel generate the energy for other for these channel proteins to produce ATP. It is how turbines in a dam generate electricity when water flows through them.