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escort fighter Strategic Bombing during World War 2

"World War 2 was a war fought in two distinct phases. The first was the last war of a new generation. The second was emphatically the first of a new era" .

"The British strategic bomber campaign was of doubtful cost effectiveness" . Bomber Command was by far the largest claimant on labour and factory space within the armed forces. Relative to their size they suffered more casualties than any other sector.

The Anglo-American bomber force was divided in terms of strategy. Bomber Command believed it was too risky to bomb by day, while the Americans believed it was too difficult to bomb by night. Initially both forces lacked accurate navigational equipment, which deterred them from precision bombing.

Germany developed a night fighter force to counteract the bomber fleet. They were equipped with an on board radar, which enabled them to locate the bombers in the darkness. The German industry was sub-divided in an attempt to minimise the effectiveness of bombing raids.

Both the Britain and Germany made substantial scientific developments throughout the course of the war. Prior to the development of the Lancaster, the British Air Force lacked a long-range bomber, capable of carrying substantial bomb loads. Wattson Watt foresaw the need for an early detection system; he developed the Radiolocation system, which alerted Britain to invading forces. The German Air Force developed an on board radar, called the Metric system, which was equipped to German night fighters.

Bomber Harris believed in the theory of carpet bombing. Nick named butcher Harris; he was known as the man who supported such campaigns as Dresden. He believed in breaking the morale of the German people.

The strategic bombing campaign significantly shortened the length of the war. It disabled the production industry and weakened the German morale.

Between Jan. 12-23 of 1943 President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill meet at Casablanca, to plan the future global military strategy for the Western Allies. The work of the conference was primarily military; deciding on the invasion of Silicy, apportioning forces to the Pacific theatre and outlining major lines of attack in the Far East. Most important of all was Roosevelts claims for the "unconditional surrender" from Germany, Italy, and Japan.

Hamburg was largely responsible for the production of German U-boats. Subsequently it was the target of numerous air raids. In an attempt to protect the fragile industry, three huge anti-aircraft artilleries were built.

Few foresaw the radical development the fighter would undergo after World War I. Such was the extent many of the doctrines established in the previous war were outdated by World War II. During the early phases of the war the Anglo-American bomber force readily accepted Douhets theory . Both the R.A.F and the U.S.A.A.F were to adhere to this doctrinal policy until they suffered severe losses in 1943-1944. The U.S.A.A.F believed unescorted bombers flying in well-designed formations could penetrate deeply over enemy skies. This theory was quickly dispelled in such battles as the Reich, where the Americans suffered significant losses. The 8th Air Force went into war with the assumption their tactical approach, although not yet proven in combat, would be successful.

Another pre-war assumption was that air attacks would be directed against specific military and economic targets. Initially civilians were avoided, as they played no part in the war, but as the campaign progressed civilian targets became of higher strategic importance, "Air raids involving indiscriminate killing of enormous numbers of civilians were the current step in the natural evolution of the art of war" . Sir Hugh Trenchard stressed the morale effect of bombing civilian targets "German people deteriorated under aerial attack" . Official records showed that absenteeism within the work place didnt increase until later in the campaign , therefore a conclusion can be drawn that the "value of morale, or area bombing as a war winning strategy was certainly over estimated" . The morale of the German people was not affected enough to effect their war-waging capacity. "Neither a maintenance of productivity nor a rebuilding of industry could have been achieved by means of compulsive but only by virtue of the voluntary response of German workers" .

It was assumed that bombing raids would ... more

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Roswell Incident





Roswell Incident:
This Essay is a descriptive reconstruction of one spectacular incident in
Roswell, New Mexico. Almost fifty years ago, an incident occurred in the
southwestern desert of the United States that could have significant
implications for all humankind.
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

[Category]:
Miscellaneous
[Paper Title]:
Roswell Incident
[Text]:
ROSWELL INCIDENT
This Essay is a descriptive reconstruction of one spectacular incident in
Roswell, New Mexico. Almost fifty years ago, an incident occurred in the
southwestern desert of the United States that could have significant
implications for all humankind. The incident was announced by the U.S. military,
and denied by the U.S. military; it has remained covered-up in the government
for the past fifty years. It is not a false claim, but rather a known event that
is thoroughly documented. It is the objective here to summarize the details of
the events and interviews of that event, affirm the right of all people
throughout the world to know the truth about what occurred, and propose a course
of action that will allow the truth to emerge.
The Roswell Incident, which enlightened our minds to the capacity of
excepting all, has remained one of the most controversial issues today. In
Roswell, New Mexico, 1947, a strange occurrence arises. An alien craft from
outer space crashed in an open field. The issue lay still for almost fifty
years, until the thought of a government cover-up arose. Societys opinions
have changed over the years. Previous to the 1990s, people have despised the
thought of sharing the universe with other intelligent life forms. Now people
are interested in this mysterious phenomenon. The government has always, in the
past, tried to keep any sign of aliens, whether it be pictures from space, to
crashes on earth, to a low or nonexistent level. Just recently has the
government been harassed to the point where they actually gave us clues to alien
existence. It has in some ways been believed that the government has worked in
partnership with popular movie directors, to produce alien movies to ease the
thought that we may not be alone. Such movies as The Arrival and the
ever-popular Independence Day are very good examples of well convincing
alien movies. If this is true, they did a good job, because statistics state
that 75% of people today believe that there are some kind of intelligent life
forms besides ourselves in the universe.
 
What really happened at Roswell
A local New Mexico rancher, MacBrazel, while riding out in the morning to
check his sheep after a long night of thunderstorms, discovered a considerable
amount of debris. It created a gouge several hundred feet long and was scattered
over a large area. Some of the debris had strange physical properties. He took
some debris to show his neighbors then his son. Soon after that he notified the
sheriff. The sheriff then contacted the authorities at Roswell Army Air Field
Base. The area was closed off and the debris was eventually flown by B-29 and
C-54 aircraft to Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio. The New York Daily News article
said in that time, ...either conclusive proof extraterrestrial have indeed
visited earth, or one of the most elaborate hoaxes ever perpetuated on the
public... Besides the wreckage that was found, there were three objects which
were highly debated about. Three bodies, two found dead, the other died in a
couple of weeks. Whether or not the bodies were actually found, is only
determined by the few witnesses who claim to have seen the bodies. A few of
these people turned out to be very highly respected military officers. Some
people say that the bodies were human which have been exposed to the radiation.
This radiation could have been caused, due to nuclear weapons that Roswell Army
Air Base had been testing, since they were at the time the only squadron, which
had authorization to nuclear weapons. This theory was discounted by most, saying
that this kind of deformation would have caused a human being to die before such
damage could occur.
The government has been blamed with covering up this whole event. They have
been claimed to have shipped off the wreckage to Dayton, Ohio, to avoid
publicity. Which is normal, to prevent a worldwide panic. The bodies however,
were not as lucky to have not become public, yet. The government has, and will
always say that the wreckage found was a secret spy balloon. The people who have
seen the wreckage, and believe that's what it was, describe it as a bundle of
tinfoil, broken wood, beams, and rubber remnants of a balloon. Most discount
this because, ... more

escort fighter

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