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enormous impact Treaty of Versailles

The end of World War I was finalized by the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919.  It was signed by Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan but not the United States, as the U.S. drafted its own treaty with Germany in 1921.  Many historians argue that the Treaty of Versailles was the major cause of World War II which occurred twenty years later.  On the Treatys most superficial level, the extreme punishment and fines that were levied by the Allied Powers on the Germans were causes enough for war.  Historians argue that this and the international fallout that resulted most notably with the United States were simply too powerful to avoid war at all.  The ramification of the Treaty sent the German economy into a severe depression and planted the seeds needed to sprout revenge and uprising such as the world had never seen before.
 Estimates for the costs of the war for the Allied Powers fluctuated between ten billion and one hundred billion dollars.  Ultimately, the Allied Powers settled on the astronomical sum of thirty-three billion dollars which the German government was mandated to pay but simply did not have the funds to do so.  In addition to paying reparations, Germany had to severely limit military spending and personnel, relinquish land previously gained in the World War, and was barred from having any air force at all.  The lack of American involvement, which was sorely needed at this time, had significant impacts on the actions of other key states.  Sudden American withdrawal from the Treaty of Versailles sent France into a panic and their subsequent occupation of the Ruhr Valley in Germany.  This action dealt a harsh blow to the Germany and British-French relations.  The former came into economic conflict with France, creating hyper-inflation, and throwing Germany into a severe depression.  Wheelbarrows of money were necessary to buy loaves of bread until the Deutsche Mark became so devalued that the bills were burned to provide heat to those living in poverty.  
Following this collapse in German currency, a desperate and vulnerable Germany capitalized on the breakdown of relations between Britain and France and United States isolationism to begin rebuilding.  This included rearmament that was in direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles.  The dictator behind this proposed revitalization in economic and military strength was Adolf Hitler.  Current economic hardship made Germany ripe for the rise of a dictator.  Hitlers timing was impeccable and he perhaps never would have gained such prominence in the German government if it was not for his propaganda that the weary and desperate German people needed so badly to recover from their depression.  The depression however, was not contained within German borders.  The politics of the era, most notably Americas isolationist policy contributed to world wide economic collapse.  This was the result of then President Woodrow Wilsons inability to persuade Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles and become a co-signer with the other Allied Powers.  The major failure in Wilsons pitch came in his proposal of the Fourteen Point Plan.
The Fourteen Point Plan outlined Wilsons view of what the post-WWI world should look like, providing for the liberation of certain peoples and territories.  Presented to Congress on January 8, 1918, strong debate ensued over the proposal of the fourteenth and final provision; a general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.  Congress voted against what Wilson dubbed the League of Nations, the failed basis of todays United Nations.  Although the U.S. proposed the League, they were the most notable nation that failed to join.  The U.S. subsequently retreated to a policy of isolationism and combined with a rebuilding and weakened Europe, there was little opposition to Hitlers rise to power and continued violation of the Treaty of Versailles.  
The rest of the world exercised a policy of appeasement, allowing Hitler to make small advances in Europe hoping that he would be satisfied with what he was given.  He became emboldened as each of his new advances into Europe met little to no opposition in the international community.  He ... more

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How the segregation & assimilation policies impacted on Aboriginal fam

2.  Compare and contrast the segregation and assimilation policies in relation to the impact they had on the Aboriginal family life.


Aboriginal family life has been disrupted and forcibly changed over the last two hundred years, as a result of the many segregation and assimilation policies introduced by Australian governments.  Often a combination of the two was employed.  The policy of segregation has impacted upon Aboriginal family life, for through this policy, Aboriginals were restricted and prohibited to practice their traditional culture, hence, resulting in the loss of their Indigenous identity and limiting the cultural knowledge for future Aboriginal generations.  The segregation policy also achieved in disfiguring the roles of family members, primarily the male's role within the family.  The policy of assimilation, in comparison to the segregation policies, has also affected Aboriginal family life, because through the removal of children from their Aboriginal homes they to as a result were deprived of their Indigenous identity and cultural links.  However, the policy of assimilation has had far greater an impact upon Aboriginal family life, for it has not only separated families and communities, but denied the parenting and nurturing of a generation of Aboriginal peoples and has also attributed to breakdowns in relationships between the non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal parent.

As European domination began, the way in which the Europeans chose to deal with the Aborigines was through the policy of segregation.  This policy included the establishment of a reserve system.  The government reserves were set up to take aboriginals out of their known habitat and culture, while in turn, encouraging them to adapt the European way of life.  The Aboriginal Protection Act of 1909 established strict controls for aborigines living on the reserves .  In exchange for food, shelter and a little education, aborigines were subjected to the discipline of police and reserve managers.  They had to follow the rules of the reserve and tolerate searchers of their homes and themselves.  Their children could be taken away at any time and apprenticed out as cheap labour for Europeans.  The old ways of the Aborigines were attacked by regimented efforts to make them European .  Their identities were threatened by giving them European names and clothes, and by removing them from their traditional lands and placing them on centralised reserves among Aboriginal people from many different tribes.  

The policy of segregation had an enormous impact on the lives of aborigines. Despite being discriminated against, the aboriginal people were being deprived the right to practice and maintain traditional aspects of their culture, thus their children were being taught to reject their aboriginality.  In turn the rapid decline in population meant that many elders were dead and thus many rituals and traditions were lost .  The loss of elders and the prohibition of practicing rituals impacted on aboriginal family life, as a result of being unable to show their children traditional dances, native language and stories of the dreamtime, cultural knowledge was not sufficiently carried on or passed down to the next generation therefore hindering Aboriginal traditional life and depriving Aboriginal children of their indigenous identity.  

The reserves also held repercussions for the structure and roles within the aboriginal family. The role and status of men more than women was effected, thus many Aboriginal men, especially unemployed, slipped into aimlessness .  Traditionally the male role within the family was that of hunter and gatherer.  It was the husband, or fathers role to find and provide food for his family.  As a result of Aboriginals being considered inferior to whites, thus acquiring a lower rate of pay, many families became dependent on food handouts provided by the missionaries and reserves, thus the fathers role of gathering for his family was subsequently lost, in turn isolating and alienating him from his family.  Due to what was seen as the Aboriginal fathers inadequacies, despite having been placed in areas where there was little employment, segregation had accentuated assimilation, for the preparation had been adequately achieved.

In comparison, to the policy of segregation, the policy of assimilation introduced the separation of Aboriginal children from their parents and the indoctrination of the children into non-Aboriginal ways, thus having a profound influence on Aboriginal ... more

enormous impact

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