Engineering


Find More Engineering

Looking for essays on engineering? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.

engineering Breaks

HYDRAULIC BRAKES
Brake Hydraulic System Principles & Service Tips.
Author/s: Bob Freudenberger
Issue: Sept-Oct, 1999
Everyone who works on brakes MUST know these concepts and procedures
In the early days of the automobile, some very clever engineering was employed to apply brakes mechanically. For example, the Italian Bugatti routed the cables over the top of the front axle so that the twisting action generated by stopping added force to the shoe cam lever.
No matter how ingenious the design, however, there was always a major drawback: Nothing could insure that braking force would be exactly equal at any pair of wheels, so there was a good chance that stepping on the pedal would cause swerving and skidding. This made the idea of hydraulically actuated brakes attractive--according to Pascal's Law, pressure at all points in a closed hydraulic system must necessarily be the same--but it took many years to develop dependable systems. The first car of any consequence to carry four-wheel hydraulic brakes was the. 1921 Dusenberg of the U.S.
Basic idea
On the most basic level, all brake hydraulic systems share the same principle: Muscle strength amplified by leverage and perhaps a power booster displaces fluid from the master cylinder and causes pressure to increase all through the circuits. This overcomes the retracting springs in drums and the seals' elasticity in disc calipers and pushes the friction material against the rotating member.
That much is obvious, but the subtleties of modern designs that provide proper performance in the real world deserve some explanation. Hence this article, which also includes important service information every mechanic should know about.
Dual master
Although it has been in use for decades all over the world, the dual (also called "split" or "tandem") master cylinder is still widely misunderstood, so we had better explain its construction and operation. A typical late-model specimen will be of the composite variety (aluminum with a plastic reservoir), but iron one-piece units are still around in abundance. Two pistons ride in the bore, and here is where we encounter some confusing terminology. The rear piston is the primary, and the one in the front is the secondary. This apparent misnaming resulted because the rear piston is the first to receive the force of the driver's leg.
Each piston has a primary seal at its front and a secondary at its rear, so you will be hearing such combinations as primary piston secondary seal, secondary piston secondary seal, etc. The primary seals are the most important because they trap the fluid that is about to be squeezed into the lines. The primary piston's secondary seal keeps fluid from escaping out of the back of the cylinder (commonly into a booster), and the secondary piston's secondary seal acts as a barrier to make two essentially separate cylinders out of one.
In normal braking, the push rod from the pedal or booster forces the primary piston forward. No pressure is created until the primary seal covers the compensating or vent port from the reservoir. Once it does, fluid is trapped in the chamber between the pistons and becomes, for all intents and purposes, a solid column. Pressure is routed from this chamber to two wheels. The trapped fluid and the primary piston coil spring both bear on the secondary piston, moving it forward and creating pressure in the chamber ahead of the secondary piston's primary seal, to which the line to the other two wheels is attached.

Continued from page 1
When the pedal is released, a partial vacuum occurs in both pressure chambers because the fluid's inertia and viscosity prevent it from returning from the lines immediately. In order to re-arm the brakes instantaneously, the primary seals are designed to allow fluid to flow one way (forward) from behind each seal into the pressure chambers.
The replenishing ports allow fluid to move freely between the chambers behind both pistons' primary cups and the reservoir according to demand and expansion and contraction from temperature changes.
Second chance
If a hose should rupture or one of the brake lines should become perforated from corrosion resulting in a catastrophic loss of fluid in half the system, the other half will still provide a means of decelerating the vehicle, albeit with a lower pedal and reduced stopping power.
Both pistons have extensions which project out ... more

engineering

Research on Engineering

  1. Open Free Essay
    Launch Free Essay and search for "Engineering" to start researching.
  2. Find the perfect essay
    Choose from tons of different essay in various lengths, styles and themes. Find the perfect Engineering essay to find and customize for your brainstorming needs.
  3. Brainstorm ideas and themes
    Use the essays you found on Engineering and extract the ideas from them. Use those ideas for the basis of your own essay.
  4. Cite your essay
    Remember to cite any essays you used for your new essay.
Start a New Essay on Engineering

Find essay on Engineering

Genetically Altered Food

Genetic modification of organisms in general is a biotechnological process that
forces genes to behave according to certain characteristics. Changing
characteristics of organisms is based on changing their DNA (tech
deoxyribonucleic acid; the acid which carries genetic information in a cell). It
is being used for modifying genes in plants, animals or micro-organisms. It is
being also used especially with food in order to improve the nutritious quality,
make less use of chemicals such as pesticides, which proved to be extremely
harmful, and sometimes to add flavour. Genetically modified food (GMF) is
considered one of the modern production improvements and the largest food
experiments in the worlds history. However, it is very vital to dispel
misconception about the nature of food. GMF is a mixed blessing which has a lot
of benefits but at the same time may arouse problems. It has many good aspects,
such as making plants ripen faster, improving the species taste and look, and
providing Third World countries with healthier and cheaper food. Genetic
modification of food has won the admiration of a lot of people, including
myself, because of its new and attractive accomplishments, but at the same time
we should take into consideration its disadvantages and try to find ways to
avoid them. Genetically modified foodstuffs have several disadvantages which I
believe are possibly avoidable through research and experiments. Most of the
time, the sale of GMFs is being permitted without posing the risks and without
informing the public with the possible danger. This of course is a violation of
human rights which can Nagi2 easily be avoided by simply informing consumers of
the characteristics of the product. When genetic engineers insert new genes into
any organism, it can lead to disruption and unpredictable changes in the pattern
and structure of the new genetic function. "In fact, the process of
inserting genes is quite random and can damage normal genes " (Genetic
Engineered Food - A Serious Health Risk 3). Therefore, harmful substances may
appear unexpectedly and can possibly create viruses and new dangerous diseases.
Therefore, it is the obligation of experts to examine GM products before making
them available to the public in order to avoid undesirable diseases. A common
example is, when some people who are allergic to certain kinds of food such as
fish eat genetically modified products such as tomatoes which were injected with
genes similar to these fish, they get easily affected by allergens. Also, GMFs
might contain toxins, which may negatively affect human beings. An experiment
run on rats by feeding them with GM potatoes affected their digestive tracks
caused changes in some of their organ weights and caused adverse effects on
their immune system(south pacific consumer protection programme1). Such
experiments show the importance of thoroughly examining GM products and making
sure of their safety on humans. In addition to that, there are long-term effects
with reasons not yet identified. That could also be avoided by further research
and continued experiments. GMF is now entering the market with an increasing
rate. Products include tomatoes, corn, potatoes and soybeans. A main problem is
that the issue of labelling these products is not yet widely used. Most
developed countries have adopted laws Nagi 3 that require product labelling of
ingredients, fats, vitamin, protein and carbohydrate. These nutrition
information provides consumers with a level of awareness and choice. Similarly,
GMF producers are obliged to label their products. They have to provide their
customers with all necessary information about the produce. This is the least
that could be done to preserve the rights of consumers to know and decide for
themselves. Labelling is then one possible choice that could help in avoiding
some of the GMFs dangers. People have the right to know if the food they are
consuming is genetically modified whether it is a matter of health, preference
or just a matter of taste" Surveys consistently find that 85-90 % of
consumers want clear labelling of all genetically engineered foods"(Genetic
Engineered Food- A Serious Health Risk 2). Moreover, it is necessary to label
food if the nutritional content is changed. Take tomatoes for example; they are
a source of Vitamin C, but if through modification they lose this characteristic
(Vitamin C ), consumers definitely have the right to know. The wrong treatment
of GM crops may cause several environmental risks. It was proved that GM crops
are easy to grow in most kinds of soils. They can grow in land that is prone to
drought or erosion in addition to soils with highly salt acid conditions. They
are also capable ... more

engineering

FAQ

What long should essays be?

Generally, the length requirements are indicated in your assignment sheet. It can be words, paragraphs, or pages given as a range (300–500 words) or a particular number (5 pages). If you are not sure about your essay’s length, the number-one tip is to clarify it with your tutor. Also, if you’re not sure how to write an essay, we have a detailed guide on that topic, just follow the link.

What makes an effective essay?

An essay should have a single clear central idea. Each paragraph should have a clear main point or topic sentence. ... An essay or paper should be organized logically, flow smoothly, and "stick" together. In other words, everything in the writing should make sense to a reader.

What should be included on an essay?

A basic essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Following this format will help you write and organize an essay. However, flexibility is important. While keeping this basic essay format in mind, let the topic and specific assignment guide the writing and organization.

What They say About Free Essay

I also want to thank http://freeessay.com , pantip and wikipedia for make it happens. #storytelling

@Gusgustt

Browse Essays

  • E: computer engineers E: computer engineers computer engineers COMPUTER ENGINEERS Choosing a career is very important in a persons life. One needs to think about the things that interest them and what kind of lifestyle they want to have. Some things a person should think about are what qualifications are needed, what type of training is necessary, and the future need of the career they choose. Some other things to consider would be how much money they will make, what is the probability of advancement, and does the career satisfy their ...
  • N: Breaks N: Breaks Breaks HYDRAULIC BRAKES Brake Hydraulic System Principles & Service Tips. Author/s: Bob Freudenberger Issue: Sept-Oct, 1999 Everyone who works on brakes MUST know these concepts and procedures In the early days of the automobile, some very clever engineering was employed to apply brakes mechanically. For example, the Italian Bugatti routed the cables over the top of the front axle so that the twisting action generated by stopping added force to the shoe cam lever. No matter how ingenious the des...
  • G: Genetically Altered Food G: Genetically Altered Food Genetically Altered Food Genetic modification of organisms in general is a biotechnological process that forces genes to behave according to certain characteristics. Changing characteristics of organisms is based on changing their DNA (tech deoxyribonucleic acid; the acid which carries genetic information in a cell). It is being used for modifying genes in plants, animals or micro-organisms. It is being also used especially with food in order to improve the nutritious quality, make less use of c...
  • I: Fordism and Scientific Managem I: Fordism and Scientific Managem Fordism and Scientific Managem FORDISM, SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT AND THE LESSONS FOR CONTEMPORARY ORGANISATIONS Fordism and Scientific Management are terms used to describe management that had application to practical situations with extremely dramatic effects. Fordism takes its name from the mass production units of Henry Ford, and is identified by an involved technical division of labour within companies and their production units. Other characteristics of Fordism include strong hierarchical cont...
  • N: Genetic Engineering N: Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering: A leap in to the future or a leap towards destruction? Introduction Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but n...
  • E: What Computer Skills Do Employers Expect From Rece E: What Computer Skills Do Employers Expect From Rece What Computer Skills Do Employers Expect From Recent College Graduates? What Computer Skills Do Employers Expect From Recent College Graduates? Philip Davis, Instructional Technology Librarian Cornell University Ithaca, N.Y. Table of Contents Cornell University 2 Cornell Library Conducts Study 2 Research Methodology 3 A Review of the Results 3 Rankings, Groupings, and Correlations 4 Ranking Computer Skills: 4 Grouping Computer Skills: 4 Other Computer Skills 4 Comments From Employers 5 Variabili...
  • E: Genetic engineering 3 E: Genetic engineering 3 Genetic engineering 3 Science is a creature that continues to evolve at an ever-increasing rate. The transformation from tree shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time for the transformation time from an analytical machine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. Science has allowed advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment; but never in history will science have an affect on our lives, as genetic engineering will undoub...
  • R: Human genome project 2 R: Human genome project 2 Human genome project 2 It all started back in 1953 with two men by the names of James D. Watson and Francis Crick when they discovered the double-helical structure of DNA. Little did they know they were opening the door to the creation of a perfect world. In 1986, the Human Genome Project, led up by the National Institution of Health(NIH), took a giant leap through this door. They began the long process of mapping out the entire genetic makeup of the human body. The main purpose of the HGP was o...
  • I: Aristotle I: Aristotle Aristotle Aristotle believes that happiness is the ultimate goal in life. You cant reach happiness unless you work hard and become successful. That is where virtue comes into play. A humans function is to engage in an activity of the soul which is in accordance with virtue and which is in conformity with reason (page 76, Palmer). The two kinds of virtue are intellectual and moral. Our virtues are what make us all individual and all different. Intellectual virtues are what we ar...
  • N: Flight Simulator N: Flight Simulator Flight Simulator A simulated flight environment for pilot training may soon be made more realistic through the use of eye-tracking technology developed by researchers at the University of Toronto's Institute of Biomedical Engineering (IMBE). Many safety and cost benefits are obtained by training aircraft pilots under simulated conditions, but to be effective the simulation must be convicingly realistic. At present, th e training facilities use large domes and gimballed projectors, or an array of...
  • G: Thirty Years from Now G: Thirty Years from Now Thirty Years from Now As I sit here, I wonder what I will become; all I see is pure success like no one has ever seen. My life is full of great and achievable goals that can fulfil my life with happiness. I see myself see myself thirty years from now becoming the most successful person the world has seen. I will have graduated high school and college with 4.0 GPA, majoring in aeronautical engineering while being in the national honors society. I will have made my college possible because of base...
  • Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering Imagine a world full of mini Hitlers seeking world domination, killing millions as their solution to establish a superior race or bunch or 2 headed humans eating a pig with 6 legs. These scenarios may sound like something out a science fiction novel, but this is the kind of things that people think about when they hear the words genetic engineering Genetic engineering is now an important part of this world. It is used to cure diseases, develop food that grows faster and f...
  • The Benefits of Science and Technology The Benefits of Science and Technology The Benefits of Science and Technology Man, powered by his imagination and inquisitive character, has wondered he mechanisms of Nature since time infinite. This quest for the truth, the ways in which his surrounding works, has led to many a scientific discoveries and innovations. Since the art of making fire and creating handcrafted tools, our civilization has come a long way. Science and Technology are making advances at an amazing rate. From telephones to the Internet, calculators to computers...
  • Governmental flaw ( gullivers Governmental flaw ( gullivers Governmental flaw ( gullivers GOVERNMENTS FLAW The government is one of the most highly criticized things in the world. From feudalism to democratic governments, there is always something to make fun of or talk about from how fat the president is to how unfair the government taxes the people. Jonathan Swift takes the flaws of politics, from his era, and magnifies them into governmental insults as well as an eye opener to the common man. Thus, Gulliver's Travels breaks up the flaws of the Englis...
  • Testing tools Testing tools Testing tools Testing Tools, A Report on what is Commercially Available Introduction Once an application has been developed, the developers must demonstrate that it performs the tasks for which it was designed accurately, reliably and with adequate performance. For this to be fulfilled extensive testing must be carried out and tools have been built to assist with this process. Developers have built different types of tool for addressing different aspects of the same general problem. The importan...
  • Peter Singer Peter Singer Peter Singer Singer, Peter (1946- ), Australian philosopher and bioethicist. Born in Melbourne, Australia, Singer studied at the University of Melbourne and at the University of Oxford, in England. He began his career lecturing ethics at Oxford from 1971 to 1973. He subsequently worked at various universities in North America and Australia. In 1977 he became a professor of philosophy at Monash University, in Melbourne. Singer also became closely associated with the university's Centre for Human ...
  • Satellite Broadband Satellite Broadband Satellite Broadband In recent years the demand for high-speed networking, driven mainly by the rapid expansion of the Internet, has been growing at an exponential rate. While a wide range of wireline and wireless solutions offering broadband connectivity are or will shortly be available, communication satellites are beginning to emerge as an attractive solution in providing broadband connectivity to a variety of users. The wide area or global coverage of satellites enables service provision to a...
  • Quebecs Quiet revolution: What is it? How has it Quebecs Quiet revolution: What is it? How has it mh Quebec\'s Quiet revolution: What is it? How has it changed Quebec\'s society? How has it affected Confederation? The English-French relations have not always been easy. Each is always arguing and accusing the other of wrong doings. All this hatred and differences started in the past, and this Quiet revolution, right after a new Liberal government led by Jean Lesage came in 1960. Thus was the beginning of the Quiet Revolution. Lesage had an excellent team of cabinet ministers which included Re...
  • Genetics Genetics Genetics Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from an analytical engine, to a calculator, to a computer. However, science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history has science be able to as deeply affect our lives as genetic engineering will undoub...
  • Frank lloyd wright Frank lloyd wright Frank lloyd wright The greatest artist this country has ever produced seems to at last be coming into his own. Americas other great artistsour painters, sculptors, composersdont really rank with the tops of all time. Theyre not Rembrandt or Michelangelo or Beethoven. Wright alone has that standing. (Robert Campbell) One of Americas most influential and imaginative architects was Frank Lloyd Wright. Throughout his 70 year career, Wright has not only designed nearly a thousand structures,...
  • Computer programming Computer programming Computer programming COMPUTER SCIENCE COMPUTER SCIENTIST/PROGRAMMER The rapid spread of computers and computer-based technologies over the past two decades has generated a need for skilled, highly trained workers to design and develop hardware and software and to make computer systems newer and more advanced ones. Computer scientist generally design computers and conduct research to improve their design or use, and develop and adapt principles for applying computers to new uses. Computer scienti...
  • Genetic engineering. 2 Genetic engineering. 2 Genetic engineering. 2 Genetic Engineering: Science Genetic Engineering, history and future Altering the Face of Science. Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but ...
  • Langston Hughes Langston Hughes Langston Hughes Langston Hughes was born in Joplin, Missouri into an abolitionist family. He was the grandson of Charles Henry Langston. His brother was John Mercer Langston, who was the the first Black American to be elected to public office in 1855. Hughes attended Central High School in Cleveland, Ohio, but began writing poetry in the eighth grade, and was selected as Class Poet. His father didn\'t think he would be able to make a living as a writer. His father paid his tuition to Columbia Un...
  • Aerodynamics Of Planes Aerodynamics Of Planes Aerodynamics Of Planes Ever since I was little I was amazed at the ability for a machine to fly. I have always wanted to explore ideas of flight and be able to actually fly. I think I may have found my childhood fantasy in the world of aeronautical engineering. The object of my paper is to give me more insight on my future career as an aeronautical engineer. This paper was also to give me ideas of the physics of flight and be to apply those physics of flight to compete in a high school competiti...
  • How The Rich Benefit From The Poor How The Rich Benefit From The Poor How The Rich Benefit From The Poor How the Rich Benefit From the Poor The United States is the most developed capitalist economy in the world. The markets within the economy provide profit-motivated companies endless potential in the pursuance of pecuniary accumulation. Throughout the twentieth-century competitive companies have implemented modernized managerial procedures designed to raise profits by reducing unnecessary costs. These cost-saving procedures have had a substantial effect on socie...