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Erowid LSD Vault : Info #4 on the Effects of LSD

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A Commentary on LSD
Alice Dee

LSD (D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, or Acid for short) can be a wonderful
psychotropic ally, and is probably the most versatile psychedelic known to
humanity. Its effects vary from simple stimulation, like a cup of coffee, that
can facilitate intense focus for 8ish hours at the 25mcg dose range (excellent
for programming, writing, driving or listening to lectures) to a social,
stimulating psychedelic in the 50-200 mcg range (great for dancing, concerts and
walks in nature) to a frankly amazing, mystic entheogen in the 300-700mcg range
(much more heroic than social, but great for communing with God/dess). Some
people find that the intensity of the LSD experience tends to plateau at dosages
over 500-700mcg, although its duration may continue to extend.
When readily available, LSD is also one of the best value-for-money psychedelics
around, usually going for $2.00 per 100 mcg 'hit' or 'dose' in the SF Bay Area
(often considered an epicenter for LSD production), although have heard of
people paying up to $5.00 per 100mcg elsewhere. These 100mcg dosages are fairly
standard in the US these days, but are signifcantly less that the powerful 300
mcg per hit dosages that were reportedly common here in the Sixties. The lower
doses per hit usually available to US psychonauts these days have probably
significantly reduced the frequency of uncomfortably strong LSD trips.
Today, LSD is commonly found soaked into colorful blotter paper (an artform in
itself), although sometimes it is available dissolved in liquid (usually
calibrated to 100mcg per drop) or dissolved in colorful, hardened gel when it is
known as windowpane. It appears that the LSD-containing tablets of various
descriptions that were around in the Sixties seem to be much less common these
days.
Regarding storage, it is very helpful to keep LSD in a dark, cool place for
long-term storage as it is not one of the more stable psychedelic molecules.
Purity is also important, and can significantly affect the quality of the
experience (especially at high doses) so it is often a good idea to bioassay a
new batch at lower doses to test the purity. Quad pure LSD (implying that the
product is washed four times, as was said to be the practice of legendary LSD
maker Owsley, aka Bear) is usually the best around, but three washes are
commonly considered adequate, especially since yield is reduced with each wash.
LSD synthesis is quite complex and generally requires a pretty professional lab
and chemist to synthesize quality product.
With moderate doses of blotter LSD, effects start to become noticeable within
around half an hour after ingestion, and tend to rise to a peak around 2-5 hours
into the experience. After the peak, the trip gradually declines in intensity
until one is pretty much back to baseline in around 8-12 hours. The afterglow
tends to last most of the following day and is usually described as quite
pleasant.
LSD can be quite safely mixed with many other psychoactives for a wide variety
of fascinating experiences. The combos with XTC or 2CB (aka candyflipping) are
especially enjoyable for social situations, and LSD also combines very
synergistically with N2O and DXM for more intense, although relatively
non-social, experiences. Many people also reportpotentiation of LSD after
pretreatment with Harmala or Melatonin. Mixed reactions have been observed when
combining LSD with MJ, so it is probably best to have a relatively straight
sitter and a safe place to retreat to in case things get 'strange' on this
combo.
The long-lasting duration of the LSD experience is also an excellent opportunity
to get some deep metaprogramming work done, so it has some very interesting
psychotherapeutic applications (see Stan Grof's fascinating research summarized
in 'LSD Psychotherapy'). Many people deal with the extended length of the
experience by taking LSD just after sunset so that they are in the tail end of
the experience as the sun is rising, which nicely completes the trip.
A fairly well-established psychological phenomenon sometimes noticed by LSD
users is known as imprinting. This is a psychological process whereby being
exposed to an event, thought or other experience ... more

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ritalin

   Parents throughout the country are being pressured and compelled by schools to give
psychiatric drugs to their children.  Teachers, school psychologists, and administrators
commonly make dire threats about their inability to teach children without medicating
them.  They sometimes suggest that only medication can stave off a bleak future of
delinquency and occupational failure.  They even call child protective services to
investigate parents for child neglect and they sometimes testify against parents in court.  
Often the schools recommend particular physicians who favor the use of stimulant drugs
to control behavior.  These stimulant drugs include methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta,
and Metadate) or forms of amphetamine (Dexedrine and Adderall).
     My purpose today is to provide to this class the scientific basis for rejecting the use of
stimulants for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or for the control of
behavior in the classroom or home.
I. Escalating Rates of Stimulant Prescription
    Stimulant drugs, including methylphenidate and amphetamine, were first approved for
the control of behavior in children during the mid-1950s.  Since then, there have been
periodic attempts to promote their usage, and periodic public reactions against the
practice.  In fact, the first Congressional hearings critical of stimulant medication were
held in the early 1970s when an estimated 100,000-200,000 children were receiving these
drugs.
    Since the early 1990s, North America has turned to psychoactive drugs in
unprecedented numbers for the control of children. In November 1999, the U.S. Drug
Enforcement Administration (DEA) warned about a record six-fold increase in Ritalin
production between 1990 and 1995.  In 1995, the International Narcotics Control Board
(INCB), a agency of the World Health Organization, deplored that 10 to 12 percent of
all boys between the ages 6 and 14 in the United States have been diagnosed as having
ADD and are being treated with methylphenidate [Ritalin]. In March 1997, the board
declared, "The therapeutic use of methylphenidate is now under scrutiny by the American
medical community; the INCB welcomes this."  The United States uses approximately
90% of the world's Ritalin.
    The number of children on these drugs has continued to escalate. A recent study in
Virginia indicated that up to 20% of white boys in the fifth grade were receiving
stimulant drugs during the day from school officials.  Another study from North Carolina
showed that 10% of children were receiving stimulant drugs at home or in school.  The
rates for boys were not disclosed but probably exceeded 15%.  With 53 million children
enrolled in school, probably more than 5 million are taking stimulant drugs.
    A recent report in the Journal of the American Medical Association by Zito and her
colleagues has demonstrated a three-fold increase in the prescription of stimulants to 2-4
year old toddlers.
II.  The Dangers of Stimulant Medication
    Until recently, no studies have systematically examined the rate of psychotic
symptoms caused by routine treatment with stimulant drugs such as methylphenidate
(Ritalin) and amphetamine (Dexedrine, Adderall).  Doctors who prescribe stimulant
drugs often seem forgetful to the fact that they can cause psychoses, including manic-like
and schizophrenic-like disorders.  Without providing a scientific basis, the literature often
cities rates of 1% or less for stimulant-induced psychoses.  
    The rate of psychotic symptoms that appear during stimulant treatment has recently
been investigated in a 5-year retrospectives study of children diagnosed with Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADH).  Among 192 children diagnosed with ADHD at
the Canadian clinic, 98 had been placed on stimulant drugs, mostly methylphenidate.  
Psychotic symptoms developed in more than 9% of the children treated with
methylphenidate.  The psychotic symptoms caused by methylphenidate included
hallucinations and paranoia.
    When children developed depression, delusions, hallucinations, paranoid fears and
other drug-induced reactions while taking stimulants, their physicians mistakenly
concluded that the children suffered from clinical depression, schizophrenia or
bipolar disorder that has been unmasked by the medications.  Instead of removing the
child from the stimulants, these doctors mistakenly prescribed additional drugs, such as
antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and neroleptics.  Children who were put on stimulants
for inattention or hyperactivity ended up taking multiple adult psychiatric drugs that
caused severe adverse effects, including psychoses and tardive dyskinesia.
    It is time to recognize that the supposedly increasing rates of schizophrenia,
depression, and bipolar disorder in children in North America are often the direct
result of ... more

energy usage

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