Emperor Nicholas


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emperor nicholas Roots of AntiSemitism




After learning about the Holocaust, I’ve asked myself many times how this could have happened.  Why would anyone believe it’s acceptable to massacre an entire people?  This is my reasoning for writing my paper on how Christian theology influenced anti-Semitism.  Much of the Holocaust appears to have it’s beginning with Christian theology.  I will begin my paper with the early writings of Christians and continue chronologically until after World War II.
The Apostle Paul was one the first people to criticize the Jewish people. At first, he tried to explain to the Christians not to adopt a superior attitude towards the Jews.
IF THE PART OF THE DOUGH OFFERED AS FIRST FRUITS IS HOLY, THEN THE WHOLE BRANCH IS HOLY; AND IF THE ROOT IS HOLY, THEN THE BRANCHES ARE ALSO HOLY…DO NOT BOAST OVER THE BRANCHES.  IF YOU DO BOAST, REMEMBER THAT IT IS NOT YOU THAT SUPPORT THE ROOT, BUT THE ROOT SUPPORTS YOU.
At one point this appeared to be Paul’s feeling towards the Jews and the Christians.  His sentiment appeared to change, according to Christian suppressionists.  In the text Romans, many of Paul’s statements were misinterpreted by those Christians to make themselves appear more superior to the Jewish people.
…INCLUDING US WHOM HE HAS CALLED, NOT FROM THE JEWS ONLY BUT ALSO FROM THE GENTILES?  AS INDEED HE SAYS IN HOSEA, "THOSE WHO WERE NOT MY PEOPLE I WILL CALL ‘MY PEOPLE,’ AND HER WHO WAS NOT BELOVED I WILL CALL ‘BELOVED.’"  "AND IN THE VERY PLACE WHERE IT WAS SAID TO THEM, ‘YOU ARE NOT MY PEOPLE,’ THERE THEY SHALL BE CALLED CHILDREN OF THE LIVING GOD,"
…GENTILES, WHO DID NOT STRIVE FOR RIGHTEOUSNESS, HAVE ATTAINED IT, THAT IS, RIGHTEOUSNESS THROUGH FAITH; BUT ISRAEL, WHO DID STRIVE FOR THE RIGHTEOUSNESS THAT IS BASED ON THE LAW, DID NOT SUCCEED IN FULFILLING THAT LAW… [ROMANS 9]
 "In proclaiming his Christian message Paul stressed that the Jewish nation had been rejected by God, and the new Covenant had superseded the old," said David Cohn-Sherbok, in his book The Crucified Jew.  "In these ways the New Testament laid the foundations for later Christian hostility to the Jewish nation…and served as the basis for the early Church’s vilification of the Jews." (Cohn-Sherbok)
Another early Christian writing which may have encouraged Jewish hatred is the Gospels of John.  Scholars believe John wanted to gain favor with the Roman Hierarchy.  Therefore, he emphasized the Jewish involvement in the death of Christ and minimized the Roman role.  "The Gospel of John contains some of the most hostile anti-Jewish statement in the Christian scriptures.  So sharp is the contrast in that gospel between Jesus’ exhortations to his followers to love one another and the hostile references to the Jews…John is ‘a gospel of Christian love and Jew hatred.’" (Charlesworth)
Some examples of John’s apparent sentiments towards the Jewish people include the following.
…THE JEWS REPLIED…[JOHN 18:31]
…MY FOLLOWERS WOULD BE FIGHTING TO KEEP ME FROM BEING HANDED OVER TO THE JEWS…  
…HE WENT OUT TO THE JEWS AGAIN…[JOHN 18:38]
…THE JEWS ANSWERED HIM, "WE HAVE A LAW, AND ACCORDING TO THAT LAW HE OUGHT TO DIE BECAUSE HE HAS CLAIMED TO BE THE SON OF GOD." [JOHN 19:7]
…THE JEWS CRIED OUT, "IF YOU RELEASE THIS MAN, YOU ARE NO FRIEND OF THE EMPEROR…"  
…HE SAID TO THE JEWS, "HERE IS YOUR KING!"  THEY CRIED OUT, "AWAY WITH HIM!  AWAY WITH HIM!  CRUCIFY HIM!…"[JOHN 19:14]
Many scholars believe the Jews and Christians were still worshipping together around the middle of the first century.  They discussed and acknowledged their differences, like a family fight.  Yet, towards the end of the first century their relationships deteriorated.  After the destruction of the second Temple in 70 CE, the Gentiles appeared to break away from the Jews.  Jewish leaders who remained faithful to the Mosaic Law, began excommunicating Christian Jews under Nero’s leadership, ending decades of relatively peaceful coexistence and shared worship. (Hauer)
The presumed superiority of Christianity started to influence Christian teachings.  The ‘Letters of Barnabas’ (late first century or early second) repeatedly proclaims this belief:  I found many passages in his letter regarding superiority.
"…HEAPING UP YOUR SINS AND SAYING THAT THE COVENANT IS BOTH THEIRS AND OUR.  IT IS OURS:  BUT IN THIS WAY DID THEY ... more

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Steps Towards The Russian Revolution

The quotation, "I shall maintain the principle of autocracy just as firmly and
unflinchingly as it was preserved by my unforgettable dead father.'  (Nicholas II) In spite of
the Czar's decrees and declarations, Russia, by the beginning of the 20th century, was
overripe for revolution," is supported by political and socioeconomic conditions late
monarchial Russia.

Nicholas II was the Czar of Russia from 1896-1917, and his rule was the brute of
political disarray.  An autocrat, Nicholas II had continued the divine-right monarchy held by
the Romanovs for many generations.  From the day Russia coronated Nicholas II as
Emperor, problems arose with the people.  As was tradition at coronations, the Emperor
would leave presents for the peasants outside Moscow.  The people madly rushed to grab
the gifts, and they trampled thousands in the bedlam.
As an autocrat, no other monarch in Europe claimed such large powers or stood
so high above his subjects as Nicholas II.  Autocracy was traditionally impatient and short-
tempered.  He wielded his power through his bureaucracy, which contained the most
knowledgeable and skilled members of Russian high society.  Like the Czar, the
bureaucracy, or chinovniki, stood above the people and were always in danger of being
poisoned by their own power.
When Sergei Witte acted as Russia's Minister of Finance from 1892 to 1903,
attempted to solve Russia's "riddle of backwardness" in its governmental system.  He is
considered more of a forerunner of Stalin rather than a contemporary of Nicholas II.  In
1900, Witte wrote a memorandum to Nicholas II, underscoring the necessity of
industrialization in Russia.  After the government implemented Witte's plan, Russia had an
industrial upsurge.  All of Russia, however, shared a deep-seated resentment of the sudden
jump into an uncongenial way of life.  Witte realized that Nicholas II was not meant to carry
the burden of leading Russia to an industrial nation as a Great Power.  Nicholas II's
weakness was even obvious to himself, when he said, "I always give in and in the end am
made the fool, without will, without character."  At this time, the Czar did not lead, his
ministers bickered amongst themselves, and cliques and special-interest groups interfered
with the conduct of government.  Nicholas II never took interest in public opinion, and
seemed oblivious to what was happening around him.  He was still convinced he could
handle Russia himself.
By 1902, the peasants had revolted against Witte's industrialization movements,
which were marked by a raise in taxes as Russia spent more than it ever had.  Russia was
struggling in the European and Asian markets, and with much domestic unrest, Nicholas II
did not want foreign affairs muddled as well.  Nicholas II dismissed Witte from the Minister
of Finance in August 1903.  
January 22, 1905, commonly known as Bloody Sunday, was a revolutionary
event only because of what followed, not of what actually happened on that day.  A group
of workers and their families set out, with the backing of several officials, to present a
petition to the Czar.  As they approached the Winter Palace, rifles sprayed them with
bullets.  This cruel act by the Czar shattered what smidgen of faith the workers and
peasants still held for Nicholas II, and sparked the quickly-aborted "October Revolution."  
Peasants and workers revolted in an elemental and anarchic rebellion, ultimately turning a
large-scale strike and bringing the government, economy, and all public services to a
complete halt.  By October 1905, the relations between the Czar and his subjects had
come to a complete breakdown.
The October Manifesto, created in 1905, caused two things.  First,  it granted
basic civil liberties to all, despite religion or nationality; it even legalized political parties.  
This concession was capped by the creation of an elected legislative body, the Imperial
Duma.  Second, it split the revolutionary front, reconciling the most cautious elements
among the moderates, who had no heart for violence, with a government which promised
to end the abuses of autocracy.  This formed the political party called Octobrist, which lead
the Duma.
Peter Stolypin was Chair of the Soviet of Ministers (1907-1911).  Stolypin's goal
was to seal the rift between the government and the public.  His scheme was a moderate
one, based largely on Witte's earlier suggestions.  Its essence was the creation of ... more

emperor nicholas

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  • Steps Towards The Russian Revolution Steps Towards The Russian Revolution Steps Towards The Russian Revolution The quotation, \'I shall maintain the principle of autocracy just as firmly and unflinchingly as it was preserved by my unforgettable dead father.\' (Nicholas II) In spite of the Czar\'s decrees and declarations, Russia, by the beginning of the 20th century, was overripe for revolution, is supported by political and socioeconomic conditions late monarchial Russia.Nicholas II was the Czar of Russia from 1896-1917, and his rule was the brute of political disarr...
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