Emiliano Zapata


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emiliano zapata Mexican Economy

Mexico was the site of some of the earliest and most advanced civilizations in
the western hemisphere. The Mayan culture, according to archaeological research,
attained its greatest development about the 6th century AD. Another group, the
Toltec, established an empire in the Valley of Mexico and developed a great
civilization still evidenced by the ruins of magnificent buildings and
monuments. The leading tribe, the Aztec, built great cities and developed an
intricate social, political, and religious organization. Their civilization was
highly developed, both intellectually and artistically. The first European
explorer to visit Mexican territory was Francisco Fernndez de Crdoba, who in
1517 discovered traces of the Maya in Yucatn. In 1535, some years after the
fall of the Aztec capital, the basic form of colonial government in Mexico was
instituted with the appointment of the first Spanish viceroy, Antonio de
Mendoza. A distinguishing characteristic of colonial Mexico was the exploitation
of the Native Americans. Although thousands of them were killed during the
Spanish conquest, they continued to be the great majority of inhabitants of what
was referred to as New Spain, speaking their own languages and retaining much of
their native culture. Inevitably they became the laboring class. Their plight
was the result of the 'encomienda' system, by which Spanish nobles, priests, and
soldiers were granted not only large tracts of land but also jurisdiction over
all Native American residents. A second characteristic of colonial Mexico was
the position and power of the Roman Catholic church. Franciscan, Augustinian,
Dominican, and Jesuit missionaries entered the country with the conquistadores.
The Mexican church became enormously wealthy through gifts and bequests that
could be held in perpetuity. Before 1859, when church holdings were
nationalized, the church owned one-third of all property and land. A third
characteristic was the existence of rigid social classes: the Native Americans,
the mestizos, mixed Spanish and Native American (an increasingly large group
during the colonial era), black slaves which were brought from Africa and the
Caribbean, freed blacks and white Mexicans. The white Mexicans were themselves
divided. Highest of all classes was that of the peninsulares, those born in
Spain, as opposed to the criollos, or Creolespeople of pure European descent
who had been born and raised in New Spain. The peninsulares were sent from Spain
to hold the highest colonial offices in both the civil and church
administrations. The peninsulars held themselves higher than the criollos, who
were almost never given high office. The resentment of the criollos became an
influential force in the later movement for independence. In 1808 the viceroy,
under pressure from influential criollos, permitted them to participate in the
administration. Other peninsular officials objected and expelled the viceroy. In
the midst of these factional struggles a political rebellion was begun by the
Mexican people. Mexico has been rocked by political rebellion during most of its
entire history in one way or another. Under the various dictatorships that
Mexico found itself under at times in history, it made tremendous advances in
economic and commercial development. Many of the new undertakings were financed
and managed by foreigners (mostly American and European). This was and continues
to be a major factor in the discontent of most Mexicans. Moreover, the
government favored the rich owners of large estates, increasing their properties
by assigning them communal lands that belonged to the Native Americans. When the
Native Americans revolted, they were sold into peonage. Discontent, anger and a
spirit of revolt continued to grow throughout Mexico. Madero was elected
president in 1911, but was not forceful enough to end the political strife.
Other rebel leaders, particularly Emiliano Zapata and Francisco (Pancho) Villa,
completely refused to submit to presidential authority. Victoriano Huerta, head
of the Madero army, conspired with the rebel leaders and in 1913 seized control
of Mexico City. New armed revolts under Zapata, Villa, and Venustiano Carranza
began, and Huerta resigned in 1914. Carranza took power in the same year, and
Villa at once declared war on him. In addition to the ambitions of rival
military leaders, intervention by foreign governments seeking to protect the
interests of their nationals added to the confusion. In August 1915, a
commission representing eight Latin American countries and the United States
recognized Carranza as the lawful authority in Mexico. The rebel leaders, except
for Villa, laid down their arms. The bandit leader incited his forces to commit
crimes against Americans to show his resentment against the United States and in
1916 led a raid on Columbus, New Mexico. As a result, an American force under
General John J. Pershing was sent to Mexico. A new ... more

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Art Comparison

Compare and Contrast Works of Art
Bright colors jumping at you asking for attention, images so real viewers can not tell the difference. These are the thoughts that came to my head as I gazed at two works of art by two Mexican artists at MoLAA museum of art . I visited two museums, Bowers Museum of cultural Art in the heart of Southern California and the Museum of Latin American Art in Long Beach for my report unfortunately I only liked the works in MoLAA and will talk about it through out my paper. I will talk about two Mexican artists Rafael Cauduro and David Alfaro Siqueros that caught my eye, and made me want to learn more of them and their approach to art. Siqueiros caught my eye and interest because according to his biography no individual associated with the arts with the possible exception of Andr Malraux, had been involved in direct political action more than David Alfaro Siqueiros (Siqueiros Biography online). Personally that to me said a lot and that got me intrigued, and made me want to know more about him and his work. Cauduro on the other hand got me intrigued through his illusionistic approach to art and interpretation of his view of things. Eve thought they seem like different approach to art they are both similar in different ways.
My first artist is Rafael Cauduro. Rafael Cauduro was born in capital city of Mexico and now resides in the city of Cuernavaca (state of Morelos) 1950. Rafael started out making superior studies of architecture and industrial design in the Latin American University in Mexico City. According to his biography Cauduro is a self taught painter who steps outside of traditional artists standard. Cauduros paintings contain a trompe de loeil (Fool the eye) quality as indicated in by how in his paintings walls, fences, and objects are so real that people can almost touch them. To the visual realism of Cauduros work, according to critic Ruiz Soto, adds what he termed critical illusion which combines an extreme technical proficiency with fantasy-filled concepts(www.rafael cauduro.com). Rafael Cauduro painting technique is of a surrealism in which the reality of dreams, or subconscious mind are as more real than the surface reality of everyday life (Sayre p.51). Cauduro paints in a Surrealistic way usually portraying the forces of dreams and subconscious that he has been famous for. This artistic movement originated in Europe in the early part of the 20th century and had a great impact on contemporary Mexican Art (www.rafaelcauduro.comm). Cauduro paints supernatural scenarios with realism akin to 17th century masters like Dutch artists Rembrandt van Rijin (Painting information Cauduro).
The piece I choose to critic is titled Buscado por su madre or Wanted by his Mother by Rafael Cauduro, no year. This piece is an Oil on Canvas painting that measured 48x36 located at the Long Beaches MoLAA. The work is presented as one of a few Mexican artists that share an interest in their painting primarily figurative style, political in nature, that often narrated the history of Mexico or the indigenous culture. The painting is one of the first viewers see as they enter the Museum. It is at eye level and demonstrates a superb use of illusionistic realism that it creates the illusion of being real. The painting is of a old Missing poster of a man on a brick wall. What made it stand out in my eyes was the fact that it looked to be a three dimensional object on what looked like real bricks with the words wanted by mother on the top. Cauduros piece, in my eyes looked like he literally took a chunk out of a wall, and placed an old torn missing poster of a man on the front and put it out for display. Cauduro uses texture to represent the look of brick by applying thick strokes of paint creating a body of its own as and mimics the look and shape of brick. He also makes applies the same technique on the wanted poster by implying that it is old and torn by again layering his paint to create the look of volume and his use ... more

emiliano zapata

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