Electric And Magnetic


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electric and magnetic Why Maglev




MagLev technology is entirely different from any form of transportation in operation today, but the basic principles that lie at the foundation are not beyond the understanding of the beginning electricity and magnetism student. It is in the application of these principles to design and optimize an actual train that things get hairy. The basic idea has been researched since the mid-sixties, but it is only now that economically feasible prototypes are being built and governments are seriously looking towards magnets to propel us into the next century. Leading the race is Germany. Their design, the Transrapid 07, is ready for commercial production. It utilizes conventional electromagnets and forces of attraction to levitate the train. A good web site to find out more about German plans for their design is http://transrapid.simplenet.com/index-e.htm
The Japanese are investigating an entirely different design involving superconducting magnets to generate huge repulsive forces which levitate the train. However, their MLU002N is still in experimental stages. For more information, check out http://www.rtri.or.jp/rd/maglev_E.html
With a little stretching, the average physics student should be able to comprehend the principles of magnetic levitation and propulsion through synchronous linear motors. To facilitate the process of understanding this complex material, we suggest that the student go through this web site in order. Make sure you understand the basic physics before moving on to the page which applies these principles to magnetically levitated vehicles.
We know from experiment that a moving charge exerts a force on other moving charges; we call this effect magnetism. The magnetic force is a field force, meaning that a moving charge sets up a field which in turn exerts a force on other moving charges. The field set up by a given moving charge is found to be perpendicular to its velocity, and to decay with distance from the charge:
First, we will examine how magnetic fields are created, then we will calculate their magnitude and direction.
Some materials can be said to be natural magnets. These magnets don't appear to have any moving charge, so how can they set up magnetic fields? The answer is found at the atomic scale:
Electrons circling an atom set up small magnetic fields. In most materials, these fields are aligned in a fairly random manner, so that all of these small fields cancel each other. In a magnet, however, these fields line up to create a net magnetic dipole, so that the object sets up a magnetic field in the surrounding space.
A current is a moving charge. Moving charges set up magnetic fields. Thus, a current seems the logical way to create a magnetic field. There are two basic setups which can be used for this purpose:
The Biot-Savart Law: in order to find the magnetic field (denoted by the symbol B) produced by a given current distribution, we have to integrate the field at a given test point, P, due to individual current displacements, ids:
The equation for the field integral turns out to be a rather complicated one, known as the Biot-Savart Law:
Ampre's Law: in cetain situations, this integral can be simplified by symmetry. In these situatins, we can use a more fundamental law, known as Ampre's Law. This law allows the calculation of the field from the amount of current enclosed by an arbitrary closed loop:
The equation for the magnetic field in such a case turns out to be:
One of the two most commonly used magnetic field equations is that for a long, straight wire. This equation can be determined from Ampre's Law through the following setup:
The equation is then derived as follows:
A solenoid is a tightly wound coil of wire carrying a uniform current i : The field inside a solenoid is approximately as shown in the following diagram:
We can calculate the field inside a solenoid with n turns per unit length using Ampre's Law:
We have now examined how magnetic fields are created, and how to calculate their magnitude. Next, we will examine the force felt on moving charges and currents due to magnetic fields.
We know that a moving charge sets up a Magnetic Field. We also know that this field sets up a force on other moving charges. This force is perpendicular both to the magnetic field and ... more

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Atomic Bomb

The information contained in this file is strictly for academic use alone. Outlaw Labs will bear no responsibility for any use otherwise. It would be wise to note that the personnel who design and construct these devices are skilled physicists and are more knowledgeable in these matters than any layperson can ever hope to be... Should a layperson attempt to build a device such as this, chances are s/he would probably kill his/herself not by a nuclear detonation, but rather through radiation exposure. We here at Outlaw Labs do not recommend using this file beyond the realm of casual or academic curiosity. ============================================================================ ----------------------- -+ Table of Contents +- ----------------------- I. The History of the Atomic Bomb ------------------------------ A). Development (The Manhattan Project) B). Detonation 1). Hiroshima 2). Nagasaki 3). Byproducts of atomic detonations 4). Blast Zones II. Nuclear Fission/Nuclear Fusion ------------------------------ A). Fission (A-Bomb) & Fusion (H-Bomb) B). U-235, U-238 and Plutonium III. The Mechanism of The Bomb ------------------------- A). Altimeter B). Air Pressure Detonator C). Detonating Head(s) D). Explosive Charge(s) E). Neutron Deflector F). Uranium & Plutonium G). Lead Shield H). Fuses IV. The Diagram of The Bomb ----------------------- A). The Uranium Bomb B). The Plutonium Bomb ============================================================================ -------------------------------- File courtesy of Outlaw Labs -------------------------------- I. The History of the Atomic Bomb ------------------------------ On August 2nd 1939, just before the beginning of World War II, Albert Einstein wrote to then President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Einstein and several other scientists told Roosevelt of efforts in Nazi Germany to purify U-235 with which might in turn be used to build an atomic bomb. It was shortly thereafter that the United States Government began the serious undertaking known only then as the Manhattan Project. Simply put, the Manhattan Project was committed to expedient research and production that would produce a viable atomic bomb. The most complicated issue to be addressed was the production of ample amounts of 'enriched' uranium to sustain a chain reaction. At the time, Uranium-235 was very hard to extract. In fact, the ratio of conversion from Uranium ore to Uranium metal is 500:1. An additional drawback is that the 1 part of Uranium that is finally refined from the ore consists of over 99% Uranium-238, which is practically useless for an atomic bomb. To make it even more difficult, U-235 and U-238 are precisely similar in their chemical makeup. This proved to be as much of a challenge as separating a solution of sucrose from a solution of glucose. No ordinary chemical extraction could separate the two isotopes. Only mechanical methods could effectively separate U-235 from U-238. Several scientists at Columbia University managed to solve this dilemma. A massive enrichment laboratory/plant was constructed at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. H.C. Urey, along with his associates and colleagues at Columbia University, devised a system that worked on the principle of gaseous diffusion. Following this process, Ernest O. Lawrence (inventor of the Cyclotron) at the University of California in Berkeley implemented a process involving magnetic separation of the two isotopes. Following the first two processes, a gas centrifuge was used to further separate the lighter U-235 from the heavier non-fissionable U-238 by their mass. Once all of these procedures had been completed, all that needed to be done was to put to the test the entire concept behind atomic fission. [For more information on these procedures of refining Uranium, see Section 3.] Over the course of six years, ranging from 1939 to 1945, more than 2 billion dollars were spent on the Manhattan Project. The formulas for refining Uranium and putting together a working bomb were created and seen to their logical ends by some of the greatest minds of our time. Among these people who unleashed the power of the atomic bomb was J. Robert Oppenheimer. Oppenheimer was the major force behind the Manhattan Project. He literally ran the show and saw to it that all of the great minds working on this project made their brainstorms work. He oversaw the entire project from its conception to its completion. Finally the day came when all at Los Alamos would find out whether or not The Gadget (code-named as such during its development) was either going to be the colossal dud ... more

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