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earth s rotation Asteroids
In
our solar system today there are over 30 000 asteroids flying around in all
directions colliding with other asteroids and planets not caring about the
destruction they might convey. Our planet Earth is caught right in the middle of
all of this action and is liable to entire extinction of any life forms on the
planet if a large enough asteroid crosses its path. Any one single asteroid has
the possibility to erase thousands of years of history and wipeout the human
race as we know it. Asteroids are large or small chunks of rock and metal flying
around space up to speeds of 80 000 km/h. These chunks were believed to have
formed millions of years ago during the "big bang". These rocks
didnt form any planets and were stuck floating around space on their own or
in the gravitation of the asteroid belt. This belt is approximately 300 million
miles from the Sun and it contains thousands of asteroids some being miles in
diameter. Another theory of the formation of asteroids is that a planet between
Mars and Jupiter once existed and after many years it exploded into thousands of
pieces that are still revolving around the sun in the form of an asteroid belt.
Other asteroids are formed when large meteors collide with large asteroids
creating more small ones. These meteors can also collide with planets breaking
off chunks of the crust into space. Ceres is believed to be the biggest asteroid
that was in space at one point in time. Ceres was believed to be 600 miles wide
making up 1/3 of the total mass of all asteroids. Ceres was the first asteroid
discovered and was found in 1801. There are two main types of asteroids; the
first dominates the outer part of the belt and are found to be rich in carbon,
the second group are located in the inside of the belt and are found to be rich
in minerals. The average temperature of the surface of an asteroid is
approximately -73 degrees C. Many people dont know that every year over 50
000 small asteroids called meteors hit the Earth every year. These meteors are
the outside layer of larger asteroids that have been chipped off or are the
surface of other planets that have detached from their positions when hit with
larger asteroids. Asteroids sometimes align with Earth when meteors flying
through space collide with other asteroids in the belt causing pieces to break
off and head in all directions. Sometimes these pieces just happen to get
aligned with Earth. However, scientists are trying to discover a way in which
they can detonate a nuclear bomb close to the asteroid causing it to change
rotation and therefore change its course. This is very dangerous because if the
asteroid explodes it will make even more of a mess when hundreds of pieces are
then on course with the Earth. Asteroids are found all over space but are most
abundant in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. This belt holds about
2000 asteroids all of different shapes and sizes. This belt has its own
gravitational pull and all of the asteroids in it revolve around the Sun. It is
believed that this belt was formed when planet X exploded. Although the majority
of asteroids are found in this belt and are generally stuck in its gravitational
pull, they are sometimes jarred from their positions from the impact of other
asteroids that are constantly floating through space. Although asteroids could
destroy Earth if they come in contact with it, small meteors that hit Earth are
found to be great discoveries. These small space rocks that have been chipped
off of other planets such as Saturn or Mars are a great way of studying other
planets surfaces without having to travel millions of miles for samples. They
come to us. If it wasnt for asteroids hitting the Earth, we might not be here
today. Millions of years ago when the Earth was forming it was a giant ball made
of liquid molten. Over a long period of time asteroids hit the Earth at
tremendous velocities causing them to join the molten and create a crust for
life. After many years of this, the Earth was formed from hundreds of asteroids
combined into one large planet. Asteroids are found to be one of the most
fascinating and dangerous things in space. This is because it is difficult to
spot every asteroid close to our planet and at any time an ... more

earth s rotation

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Heliocentrism

The impact of the Heliocentric Theory Heliocentric: Relating to the sun as a
center; appearing as if seen from the sun's center.(Webster,447) The
heliocentric theory was first introduced to the world by a Polish astronomer
named Nicolaus Copernicus. Copernicus published his views on the heliocentric
theory in his book Commentariolus, in 1514, which sparked the time period now
known as the Copernican Revolution. Heliocentrism was proven true by the
discoveries of Galileo, Kepler, and Newton; through their efforts to prove the
validity of the heliocentric theory people began to find truth in science
through experimentation rather than religion with no proof. Many scientists went
through great ordeals for their scientific beliefs, thus making the heliocentric
theory the most electrifying idea in human history. Ancient people's believed in
Gods and deities for causes to nature and the unexplained. Once the fourth
century BC rolled around, people began to see "astronomical phenomena"
as "natural compound products of simple operations repeated in
perpetuity" rather than the actions of Gods. (Morphet, p.6) Greeks did not
revere celestial bodies very strongly in their religion, despite having deities
for the Sun and Moon. (North, p.78) Different peoples beliefs varied greatly in
ancient times. Different countries progressed in thought at different speeds.
During the Renaissance, many began to "toss aside medieval preoccupations
with supernatural forces and turned to secular concerns" like fame. (Yamasaki,
p.50) With the "Age of Discovery," people began to think for
themselves and ponder truths through philosophy, science, astronomy, astrology,
etc. Philosophers' minds began to turn, the human mind was finally awake. Plato,
a famous Greek philosopher, believed stars were Gods that the creator gave life
to. This view was very influential and proved to be sort of a religion for
intellectual idealists, no longer for the populace. At the time, the thought of
heavenly bodies being divine, and stars being eternal objects in unchanging
motion were common knowledge. Thinking otherwise was considered Atheistic.
(North, p.78) Fellow famous Renaissance man, and Plato's pupil, Aristotle, was
also a very important figure. Born in Stagira in 384, Aristotle is regarded as
the most influential ancient philosopher of the sciences. Aristotle refined
Callippus' geometrical and spherical concepts, and developed the geocentric
theory, which was believed for two thousand years. (North, p.80) Aristotle
believed that the sphere is the most perfect figure because when rotated to any
diameter it occupies the same space; and that circular motions are a sign of
perfection, which is why Heaven is considered divine. The spherical nature of
the Earth and Universe according to Aristotle, is the natural movement of
Earthly matter from all places downwards, to a center, around which a sphere of
matter will build up. "Only circular motion is capable of endless
repetition without a reversal of direction, and rotary motion is prior to linear
because what is external, or at least could have always existed, is prior, or at
least potentially prior, to what is not." In Aristotle's book De Caelo (On
the Heavens), he speaks of the celestial sphere, the Earth's center being the
same shape, and dismissing the idea of the Earth rotating at the center of the
universe. He also dismisses the idea of an orbital motion of the Earth. (North,
p.81) Contradicting Aristotle, Heracleides, an astronomer, believed in the
rotation of the Earth on it's axis and is known to be the earliest astronomer to
stand by it. He was thought to have taken the first step in "Copernicanism."
It is believed in the years to follow that Copernicus was said to have mentioned
Heracleides' name in this connection. (North, p.85) Aristarchus of Samos was the
first astronomer to clearly put forth a true sun-centered theory, learned from
Archimedes. (North, p.85) "...Aristarchus' hypotheses are that the fixed
stars and the Sun are stationary, that the Earth is carried in a circular orbit
around the Sun, which lies in the middle of it's orbit, and that the spheres of
fixed stars, having the same center as the Sun, is so great in extent that the
circle on which the Earth is supposedly carried is in the same ratio to the
distance of the sphere has to its surface." (North, p.85-6) If Aristarchus
did believe in heliocentrism, he still could not prove the differences in the
Earth's motion and seasons, which explains its failure to be accepted. (North,
p.86-7) Although scientists such as Eudoxus, Callippus, and Aristotle all came
up with Earth-centered systems based by providing a center for all motions,
Ptolemy was triumphant for he was able to explain sphere sizes and achieved a
single system, which was not ... more

earth s rotation

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