Drug Ritalin


Find More Drug Ritalin

Looking for essays on drug ritalin? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.

drug ritalin ritalin

   Parents throughout the country are being pressured and compelled by schools to give
psychiatric drugs to their children.  Teachers, school psychologists, and administrators
commonly make dire threats about their inability to teach children without medicating
them.  They sometimes suggest that only medication can stave off a bleak future of
delinquency and occupational failure.  They even call child protective services to
investigate parents for child neglect and they sometimes testify against parents in court.  
Often the schools recommend particular physicians who favor the use of stimulant drugs
to control behavior.  These stimulant drugs include methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta,
and Metadate) or forms of amphetamine (Dexedrine and Adderall).
     My purpose today is to provide to this class the scientific basis for rejecting the use of
stimulants for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or for the control of
behavior in the classroom or home.
I. Escalating Rates of Stimulant Prescription
    Stimulant drugs, including methylphenidate and amphetamine, were first approved for
the control of behavior in children during the mid-1950s.  Since then, there have been
periodic attempts to promote their usage, and periodic public reactions against the
practice.  In fact, the first Congressional hearings critical of stimulant medication were
held in the early 1970s when an estimated 100,000-200,000 children were receiving these
drugs.
    Since the early 1990s, North America has turned to psychoactive drugs in
unprecedented numbers for the control of children. In November 1999, the U.S. Drug
Enforcement Administration (DEA) warned about a record six-fold increase in Ritalin
production between 1990 and 1995.  In 1995, the International Narcotics Control Board
(INCB), a agency of the World Health Organization, deplored that 10 to 12 percent of
all boys between the ages 6 and 14 in the United States have been diagnosed as having
ADD and are being treated with methylphenidate [Ritalin]. In March 1997, the board
declared, "The therapeutic use of methylphenidate is now under scrutiny by the American
medical community; the INCB welcomes this."  The United States uses approximately
90% of the world's Ritalin.
    The number of children on these drugs has continued to escalate. A recent study in
Virginia indicated that up to 20% of white boys in the fifth grade were receiving
stimulant drugs during the day from school officials.  Another study from North Carolina
showed that 10% of children were receiving stimulant drugs at home or in school.  The
rates for boys were not disclosed but probably exceeded 15%.  With 53 million children
enrolled in school, probably more than 5 million are taking stimulant drugs.
    A recent report in the Journal of the American Medical Association by Zito and her
colleagues has demonstrated a three-fold increase in the prescription of stimulants to 2-4
year old toddlers.
II.  The Dangers of Stimulant Medication
    Until recently, no studies have systematically examined the rate of psychotic
symptoms caused by routine treatment with stimulant drugs such as methylphenidate
(Ritalin) and amphetamine (Dexedrine, Adderall).  Doctors who prescribe stimulant
drugs often seem forgetful to the fact that they can cause psychoses, including manic-like
and schizophrenic-like disorders.  Without providing a scientific basis, the literature often
cities rates of 1% or less for stimulant-induced psychoses.  
    The rate of psychotic symptoms that appear during stimulant treatment has recently
been investigated in a 5-year retrospectives study of children diagnosed with Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADH).  Among 192 children diagnosed with ADHD at
the Canadian clinic, 98 had been placed on stimulant drugs, mostly methylphenidate.  
Psychotic symptoms developed in more than 9% of the children treated with
methylphenidate.  The psychotic symptoms caused by methylphenidate included
hallucinations and paranoia.
    When children developed depression, delusions, hallucinations, paranoid fears and
other drug-induced reactions while taking stimulants, their physicians mistakenly
concluded that the children suffered from clinical depression, schizophrenia or
bipolar disorder that has been unmasked by the medications.  Instead of removing the
child from the stimulants, these doctors mistakenly prescribed additional drugs, such as
antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and neroleptics.  Children who were put on stimulants
for inattention or hyperactivity ended up taking multiple adult psychiatric drugs that
caused severe adverse effects, including psychoses and tardive dyskinesia.
    It is time to recognize that the supposedly increasing rates of schizophrenia,
depression, and bipolar disorder in children in North America are often the direct
result of ... more

drug ritalin

Research on Drug Ritalin

  1. Open Free Essay
    Launch Free Essay and search for "Drug Ritalin" to start researching.
  2. Find the perfect essay
    Choose from tons of different essay in various lengths, styles and themes. Find the perfect Drug Ritalin essay to find and customize for your brainstorming needs.
  3. Brainstorm ideas and themes
    Use the essays you found on Drug Ritalin and extract the ideas from them. Use those ideas for the basis of your own essay.
  4. Cite your essay
    Remember to cite any essays you used for your new essay.
Start a New Essay on Drug Ritalin

Find essay on Drug Ritalin

Drug Abuse

Drug abuse is a widespread problem that makes individual drug users the prime victims. But drugs also affect all of us, wherever we live and whatever we do. Drug abuse can cause serious physical and mental deterioration. The problem can tear apart the family structure and make it hard for learning. Difficulties on the job due to drug abuse make it hard for employers to run their businesses. Stealing form employers or from individuals to get money from for drugs causes pain and economic loss to the victims.  Arrests and jailing of drug users and dealers puts a strain on law enforcement officials and the criminal justice systems; the cost to taxpayers is enormous.  The millions of dollars spent on illegal drugs in America encourage criminal activity and ribs the government of tax revenues.
        For all these reasons and many more the subject of drug about is extremely important.  As a way of considering this vast subject, experts have classified the drugs according to their primary effects on the bay. Thus, the eight basic drugs classifications are:  antidepressants, anti-anxiety tranquilizers, anti-psychotic tranquilizer, cannabis, hallucinogens, narcotics, sedative/hypnotics, and stimulants.
        Antidepressant drugs are substances that improve a persons mood and are commonly used in the treatment of depression. Depression is a psychiatric problem that is characterized by a loss of interest in the most aspects of life, a slowing-down of activity, a feeling of worthlessness, and sometimes-suicidal thoughts. When used for non-medical purposes, antidepressant drugs have little impact on mood and do not give immediate sensations of pleasure. Nevertheless, they have been found to increase the effect of other drugs tat depress the central nervous system, including alcohol, antihistamines, barbiturates narcotics, sedatives, and tranquilizers. Two of the main types of antidepressants are Elavil and tofranil.
  Anti-anxiety tranquilizers are drugs that have a calming effect on the central nervous system, relieve anxiety and tension, and sometimes relax the skeletal muscles. The drugs have been shown to have undesirable side effects and to be habit-forming tranquilizers are especially dangerous as then intensify the effects of other depressants; tranquilizers can cause coma and even death. Librium and Valium are two examples of anti-anxiety tranquilizers that produce effects like alcohol barbiturates are often abused.
 Anti-psychotic tranquilizers are a major classification of drugs commonly used to treat serious psychiatric problems.  The drugs, such as Thorazine, are rarely used non-medically, because that does not produce euphoric effects. Still, the drugs are sometimes preferred to barbiturates as calming agents because they do not cause physical dependence and even in large doses do not result in coma.
   Cannabis is a general word used to refer to preparation such as hashish, hash oil, and marijuana that are consumed for their intoxicating effects.  The intensity of the reactions depends on such factors as the potency of the drugs, the mood and expectation of the user, and the environment in which the drug is taken. Cannabis is classified in a category of its own, though their effects are similar to those of the depressants, stimulant, and hallucinogens.
     Hallucinogens are a group of natural and man-made drugs whose primarys effect is to distort the senses.  The main result in hallucinations (experiences that have nothing to do with reality.)  Included in the classification are LSD, MDA, and PCP.  Although other drugs, such as alcohol or cannabis, may produce hallucinogens because this is not the usual effect that is expected and experienced.
  Narcotics generally refers to any substance that dills a persons sense.  Drugs in the class are capable to narcosis of producing a sense of well being in small doses and lethargy, drowsiness or coma when taken in large amounts. This classification includes opium, morphine, and heroin.  Since the early 20th century, the tem came to mean any disapproved, illicit drugs, or a drug that produced sleep or hallucination ad appeared addicting or harmful.
    Sedative/Hypnotics are a class of drug that cause relaxation, calmness and sedation in low doses and sleep in higher doses.  The class includes alcohol, such as distilled liquors and wine) barbiturates, such as pentathlon sodium, nonbarbiturators, such as methaqualone (Quaalude), and stimulants, such as Benzedrine and Ritalin.
... more

drug ritalin

FAQ

What long should essays be?

Generally, the length requirements are indicated in your assignment sheet. It can be words, paragraphs, or pages given as a range (300–500 words) or a particular number (5 pages). If you are not sure about your essay’s length, the number-one tip is to clarify it with your tutor. Also, if you’re not sure how to write an essay, we have a detailed guide on that topic, just follow the link.

What makes an effective essay?

An essay should have a single clear central idea. Each paragraph should have a clear main point or topic sentence. ... An essay or paper should be organized logically, flow smoothly, and "stick" together. In other words, everything in the writing should make sense to a reader.

What should be included on an essay?

A basic essay consists of three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Following this format will help you write and organize an essay. However, flexibility is important. While keeping this basic essay format in mind, let the topic and specific assignment guide the writing and organization.

What They say About Free Essay

I also want to thank http://freeessay.com , pantip and wikipedia for make it happens. #storytelling

@Gusgustt

Browse Essays

  • D: Electroshock Therapy D: Electroshock Therapy Electroshock Therapy Electroshock therapy what is it? How does it work? What is it used for and what comes from it? This paper will answer all of these questions and will also try to prove that electroshock therapy is useful and not as bad as it appears to be. Electroshock therapy is an old process of ridding schizophrenia, and depression, and suicidal tendencies. It is used when people with major depression are taking too many anti depressant drugs, cant take the side-effects of their medicati...
  • R: ritalin R: ritalin ritalin Parents throughout the country are being pressured and compelled by schools to give psychiatric drugs to their children. Teachers, school psychologists, and administrators commonly make dire threats about their inability to teach children without medicating them. They sometimes suggest that only medication can stave off a bleak future of delinquency and occupational failure. They even call child protective services to investigate parents for child neglect and they sometimes testify again...
  • U: Drug Abuse U: Drug Abuse Drug Abuse Drug abuse is a widespread problem that makes individual drug users the prime victims. But drugs also affect all of us, wherever we live and whatever we do. Drug abuse can cause serious physical and mental deterioration. The problem can tear apart the family structure and make it hard for learning. Difficulties on the job due to drug abuse make it hard for employers to run their businesses. Stealing form employers or from individuals to get money from for drugs causes pain and economi...
  • G: FRAGILE X SYNDROME G: FRAGILE X SYNDROME FRAGILE X SYNDROME Fragile X Syndrome is an inherited genetic condition associated with mental retardation. It is caused by a mutation of the X chromosome. Fathers cannot pass the disease onto their sons, because females always give an x chromosome where a man gives either an x or a y. If a man gives a y chromosome, then the result is a boy baby, and since the disease is only carried in the x chromosome, a boy can only inherit this disease from his mother. A girl, on the other hand, ...
  •  : Ritalin : Ritalin Ritalin In today's society we want a quick fix to remedy our problems. Therefore doctors are prescribing the drug, Ritalin, excessively. Although Ritalin is a widely used drug to control AD (H) D, there are other safer alternatives to combat this worldwide disorder. Ritalin, like many other drugs, has several side effects, some of which are severe. Ritalin is in a class of drugs called Methylphetamines. These types of drugs affect everything from thought process to everyday breathing. Ritalin's ...
  • R: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder R: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Introduction Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), once called hyperkinesis or minimal brain dysfunction, is one of the most common mental disorders among children. (Elia, Ambrosini, Rapoport, 1999) It affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, with approximately 60% to 80% of these children experiencing persistence of symptoms into adolescence and adulthood, causing a lifetime of frustrated dreams and emot...
  • I: ADHD I: ADHD ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder known as ADHD, it is a disorder that is found in children and can continue into adulthood. The child has the symptoms of inattention and a combination of hyperactive impulsive behavior. Some children dont develop these symptoms till late childhood or early adolescence. This disorder occurs more with boys than girls. They say it possible that boys have more of a chance genetically in getting this disorder. There are a large number of people that ar...
  • T: Narcolepsy T: Narcolepsy Narcolepsy An article in the Scientific American, by Jerome M. Siegel, focused on a dangerous sleeping disorder called Narcolepsy. A Narcoleptic has Symptoms such as cataplexy, which is the loss of skeletal muscle tone, and always feeling sleepy during daytime hours. The people suffering from this disorder tend to feel as if they hadn't gone to sleep for 48 hours. In addition, they sleep poorly at night. Laughter, embarrassment, sudden anger, social interactions with strangers, and sexual interc...
  • A: stimulant medication and adhd A: stimulant medication and adhd stimulant medication and adhd One of the major controversies regarding ADHD concerns the use of psychostimulants to treat the condition. One side of the argument contends that psychostimulants have too many side effects, a high abuse potential and only mask the problem rather than solve it. They also argue that the drug is over prescribed and that the over prescription is promoted by drug companies to boost sales. The other side contends that the drugs are extremely effective tools, especially...
  • L: anti social L: anti social anti social Anti-Social In a world full of fears, perhaps the worst one a human being should have is that to be afraid of his fellow man. The human that should be most feared is the one that has Anti-Social Personality Disorder or in laymen's terms the psychopath. The psychopath is probably the most deviant mind that exists and treatment is not very successful because there is not a cure or drug to control it. The solution in my mind to control the problem of sociopaths is to let them live in co...
  • I: HEALTH I: HEALTH HEALTH Larry Hood Project IV STEPS 2 3 Article 1 1. What is property P? Increase in brain activity 2. What is the sample? The 16 boys 3. What is the population? All children 4. What is the implicit question? Why is there a difference in brain function between normal kids and kids with ADHD. 5. What is not the implicit question? Do all children have a property p? 6. What type of argument? Sampling 7. what did they look at? They looked at 16 children who were diagnosed with ADHD six were not. 8. I...
  • N: Electroshock Therapy N: Electroshock Therapy Electroshock Therapy Electroshock therapy what is it? How does it work? What is it used for and what comes from it? This paper will answer all of these questions and will also try to prove that electroshock therapy is useful and not as bad as it appears to be. Electroshock therapy is an old process of ridding schizophrenia, and depression, and suicidal tendencies. It is used when people with major depression are taking too many anti depressant drugs, cant take the side-effects of their medicati...
  • School Violence School Violence School Violence [Category]: Social Issues [Paper Title]: School Violence [Text]: Violence in South Florida Schools According to Patrick J. Kiger, a freelance writer based in Washington, D.C., most of the public is unaware of the rampant occurrence of violence in many schools. Some children are terrorized to such a degree that they suffer serious physical injuries, even death, which others may commit suicide to escape the torment. (Kiger 26) In a 1997 CDC survey, 8.3% of high school students carr...
  • Ritalin Ritalin Ritalin Ritalin The parents of six year old James Patrick Smith receive a phone call from the school guidance counselor informing them of their child\'s recent hyperactive behavior. After a short conference, the guidance counselor suggests to the parents a solution for young James\' problem; as a result, the family visits their family doctor and the doctor diagnoses James with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) during a one hour appointment. To remedy the disorder, the doctor prescribes the savio...
  • Kurt Donald Cobain Kurt Donald Cobain Kurt Donald Cobain Kurt Donald Cobain was born in Hoquiam near Aberdeen ,Washington. His mother was Wendy and his father was Donald Cobain. Kurt was born on February 20, 1967. Kurt died on April 5,1994. Kurt was bright and receptive boy who had an interest in music from the early age of two. He had a Mickey mouse drum set that he beated night and day, Kurt\'s aunt Mary gave him his first guitar lesson , found that he couldn\'t sit through a whole lesson pretty much like any six or seven would no...
  • At The Height Of His Career, Why? At The Height Of His Career, Why? At The Height Of His Career, Why? At the Height of His Career, Why? Kurt Cobain was citied in the Seattle area with a shotgun. Days later on the fifth of April, Kurt Cobain went into the small room above his garage in his Seattle home and ended it all. Fans across the world were stunned by the news of Kurt Cobains sudden and shocking suicide. Kurt was the leader of the multiplatinum grunge band Nirvana, and was widely hailed as the John Lennon of his generation. He was a gifted song writer a...
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Working in a preschool, I often see children with problems. Children often run around the room, not listening to their teachers pleas for them to sit still and listen to directions. A lot of times, these problems can be traced back to the parents. Poor parenting skills have been the blame of several problem children over the years. One child at the preschool, Madison, is one of these problem children. I often hear her teacher having to repeat her n...
  • Adderall, the Wonder Drug or the Destroyer? Adderall, the Wonder Drug or the Destroyer? Adderall, the Wonder Drug or the Destroyer? Why did the ADHD boy not introduce his girlfriend to any of his friends? He could not remember her name; or better yet, why would a chicken be considered ADD? It never gets all the way across the road because of all the distractions. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental and behavioral disorder that affects 3 to 5 percent of all school-age children. The American Psychiatric Association explains that, Individuals with ADH...
  • Victims of school failure Victims of school failure Victims of school failure In this day and age learning disabilities are attracting people\'s attention. Many kids go through school almost in a daze not knowing exactly what is going on. At times, teachers will ignore the problem and teach the rest of the class. There is a wide variety of learning disabilities, but the most common one is Attention Deficit Disorder (A.D.D.). Problems occurring at school are usually the reason for a diagnosis of ADD. Children with this disability experience diffic...
  • ADHD ADHD ADHD ADHD ADHD, a disorder beginning in childhood, characterized by a persistent inability to sit still, focus attention on specific tasks, and control impulses, contributed by Michael Woods to Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common mental disorders of childhood. Many children grow out of ADHD by adolescent or adult years, but many do not. Studies show ADHD in adulthood is more severe and may cause long term effects. Diagnosing ADHD ...
  • SUBLIME SUBLIME SUBLIME Sublime Sublime was a band of the 90\'s who played their first gig back in the summer of l988. This performance that started the famous Peninsula Riot of Long Beach, CA during the 4th of July. This band was once the average garage band that every kid wants to be in. But they changed from backyard beer buddies, into a great musicians. Sublime began recording in early 1992 when they joined up with Long Beach\'s local studio Skunk Records where they recorded they incredible CD, 40oz to Free...
  • Five year old Danny is in kindergarten. It is play Five year old Danny is in kindergarten. It is play add Five year old Danny is in kindergarten. It is playtime and he hops from chair to chair, swinging his arms and legs restlessly, and then begins to fiddle with the light switches, turning the lights on and off again to everyone\'s annoyance--all the while talking nonstop. When his teacher encourages him to join a group of other children busy in the playroom, Danny interrupts a game that was already in progress and takes over, causing the other children to complain of his bossiness and drift aw...
  • Is Ritalin Good Is Ritalin Good Is Ritalin Good Is Ritalin Good? Have you ever suffered or known anyone that has suffered from attention deficit disorder? A.D.D. is a biologically based condition causing a persistent pattern of difficulties, which includes three types of behavior. These three types are difficulty attending or focusing on a specific task, difficulty inhibiting behavior, and difficulty controlling impulses. In 1950 the prescription drug Ritalin was patented and manufactured by the CIBA-Geigy Corporation. This dr...
  • A Comparison between Ken Keseys One Flew Over the A Comparison between Ken Keseys One Flew Over the A Comparison between Ken Keseys One Flew Over the Cukoos Nest and Sylvia Plaths The Bell Jar What could a convicted rapist possibly have in common with a young aspiring female writer? These characters, depicted by Ken Kesey and Sylvia Plath respectively have a lot more in common than one may think. Ken Keseys novel One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, and Sylvia Plaths autobiographical novel The Bell Jar are two radically different stories. These two stories, however have striking similarit...
  • The overdiagnosis of ADHD The overdiagnosis of ADHD The overdiagnosis of ADHD In Bobbys second grade classroom, his teacher threw up her hands and said, That is it! On that very morning, Bobby leaped out of his seat seven times to go sharpen his pencil, each time accidentally colliding into other students desks and chairs, sending papers and books plunging to the floor. Bobby screamed out comments to every slightly comical part of the book that the teacher read. His teachers last straw was when, after repeatedly kicking the desk in front of h...