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doctoral level Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman has been credited with many different achievements, including being one of the most effective advocates of economic freedoms and free enterprise, being the greatest economist to ever walk the face of the earth, and proving every single word that Lord Maynard Keynes ever said to be wrong. Why these may or may not all be true, it is obvious that Friedman was a brilliant man of many accomplishments.
Milton Friedman was born on July 15th, 1912 in New York City. His parents were poor immigrants and his father died when he was a senior in high school.  Despite all of these obstacles he had to overcome, Friedman received a scholarship to Rutgers University and got his B.A., an M.A. in 1933 from the University of Chicago, and a Ph.D. in 1946 from Columbia University. He worked as a research assistant to Henry Schultz at University of Chicago until 1937 when he started working with the National Bureau of Economics. There he jointly published the book Incomes from Independent Professional Practice with Simon Kuznets, which also served as his doctoral dissertation at Columbia. This book introduced the concepts of permanent and transitory income. In 1933 Milton Friedman met Rose Director, a fellow Economics student, and six years later they were married. Rose and Milton have collaborated on quite a few books and essays, and have established the Milton & Rose D. Friedman foundation, which promotes School Choice, which will be explained in more detail later.
In 1976 Milton Friedman won the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences "for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy." Milton Friedman coined the terms "only money matters" as his emphasis on the role of monetary policy in the United States economy. Friedman is perhaps the most effective advocate for free enterprise and monetarist policies from 1945-1985. His only rival among economists of the 20th century would have to be Keynes.
As well as being a Nobel Prize winner and just an overall brilliant man, Friedman served as Senator Barry Goldwater's informal economic advisor in 1964 and for Richard Nixon in 1968, then as President Nixon's advisor. He served as President Reagan's Economic Advisor on his Advisory Board in 1981. Friedman was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1988 and received the National Medal of Science the same year. He was also a member of the President's Commission on an All-Volunteer Armed Force and the President's Commission on White House Fellows. He is a past president of the American Economic Association, the Western Economic Association, and the Mont Pelerin Society and is a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. Friedman was awarded with many honorary degrees by universities in the United States, Japan, Israel, and Guatemala, as well as the Grand Cordon of the First Class Order of the Sacred Treasure by the Japanese government in 1986. He is known as the leader of the Chicago School of monetary economics.
Milton Friedman is the author of many books and two public television series that he did with his wife Rose: Free to Choose(1980) and Tyranny of the Status Quo(1984). His most important books include Free to Choose and Tyranny of the Status Quo( both of which compliment the TV series), Capitalism and Freedom(1962 with Rose D. Friedman); and Bright Promises, Dismal Performance (1983), which consists mostly of reprints of tri-weekly columns that he wrote for Newsweek from 1966 to 1983. Also, A Theory of the Consumption Function(1957) and A Monetary History of the U.S.(1963 with A.J. Schwartz).
Milton Friedman has a primary belief in the tenet of limited government. He describes himself as classic liberalism. Today's liberalism views are very opposite to Friedman's, and therefore he is often considered a Republican Libertarian, as conservative is really to narrow a label to encompass his other views of a limited government. Friedman's belief in a limited government is supported by his desires to restrict the scope of government's authority in the lives of individuals and to decentralize the power base of government to prevent a person's unwanted entanglements with a federal bureaucracy. Friedman's belief is that any one ... more

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Karl marx 2

Karl Marx was the greatest thinker and philosopher of his time.  His views on life and the social structure of his time revolutionized the way in which people think.  He created an opportunity for the lower class to rise above the aristocrats and failed due to the creation of the middle class.  Despite this failure, he was still a great political leader and set the basis of Communism in Russia. His life contributed to the way people think today, and because of him people are more open to suggestion and are quicker to create ideas on political issues.

        Karl Heinrich Marx was born May 5th, 1818 in Trier.  Although he had three other siblings, all sisters, he was the favorite child to his father, Heinrich.  His mother, a Dutch Jewess named Henrietta Pressburg, had no interest in Karl's intellectual side during his life.  His father was a Jewish lawyer, and before his death in 1838, converted his family to Christianity to preserve his job with the Prussian State.  When Heinrich's mother died, he no longer felt he had an obligation to his religion, thus helping him in the decision in turning to Christianity.
       
        Karl's childhood was a happy and carefree one. His parents had a good relationship and it helps set Karl in the right direction.  "His splendid natural gifts' awakened in his father the hope that they would one day be used in the service of humanity, whilst his mother declared him to be a child of fortune in whose hands everything would go well." (The story of his life, Mehring, page 2)
 
        In High school Karl stood out among the crowd. When asked to write a report on "How to choose a profession" he took a different approach. He took the angle in which most interested him, by saying that there was no way to choose a profession, but because of circumstances one is placed in an occupation. A person with an aristocratic background is more likely to have a higher role in society as opposed to someone from a much poorer background.

        While at Bonn at the age of eighteen he got engaged to Jenny Von Westphalen, daughter of the upperclassmen Ludwig Von Westphalen. She was the childhood friend of Marx's oldest sister, Sophie. The engagement was a secret one, meaning they got engaged without asking permission of Jenny's parents. Heinrich Marx was uneasy about this but before long the consent was given.
       
        Karl's school life other than his marks is unknown. He never spoke of his friends as a youth, and no one has ever came to speak of him through his life. He left high school in August of 1835 to go on to the University of Bonn in the fall of the same year to study law. His father wanted him to be a lawyer much like himself but when Karl's reckless university life was getting in the way after a year Heinrich transferred him to Berlin. Also, he did not go to most lectures, and showed little interest in what was to be learned. Karl's reckless ways were not tolerated at Berlin, a more conservative college without the mischievous ways of the other universities.
         While at Berlin, Marx became part of the group known as the Yong Hegelians. The group was organized in part due to the philosophy teacher Hegel that taught from 1818 to his death. The teachings of Hegel shaped the way the school thought towards most things. Those who studied Hegel and his ideals were known as the Young Hegelians. Hegel spoke of the development and evolution of the mind and of ideas. Although Karl was younger than most in the group, he was recognized for his intellectual ability and became the focus of the group. While at Berlin "He came to believe that all the various sciences and philosophies were part of one overarching, which, when completed, which would give a true and total
picture of the universe and man." (Communist Manifesto, Marx (Francis B. Randal) page 15) Marx was an atheist, and believed that science and philosophy would prove everything. Thus he had no belief in a god of any type. Marx believed that Hegel must have ... more

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