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diesel exhaust hybrid vehicles

Hybrid Vehicles 1

Hybrid Vehicles:
(Effects on the environment)
Arthur Gil
Environmental Investigations
Professor
April 4,2005

Hybrid Vehicles 2
As gasoline prices increase and the environment becomes unstable, people will begin to look for other modes to power their automobiles. One of those modes is know as hybrid power. A vehicle is considered a hybrid when it combines two or more sources of power. For example, a mo-ped (a motorized pedal bike) is a type of hybrid because it combines the power of a gasoline engines with the pedal power of the rider. Hybrid vehicles are an alternative being used to decrease the emissions of vehicles and to decrease the amount of fossil fuels being used. Hybrid vehicles also cost less to operate because of the decreased fuel usage.
The gasoline-electric hybrid car is a cross between a gasoline-powered car and an electric car. Hybrid vehicles are all around us. Most of the locomotives we see pulling trains are diesel-electric hybrids. According too How Cars Work, Cities like Seattle have diesel-electric buses these can draw electric power from overhead wires or run on diesel when they are away from the wires.
There are two kinds of hybrids. The parallel hybrid has a fuel tank which supplies gasoline to the engine. But it also has a set of batteries that supplies power to an electric motor. Both the engine and the electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time, and the transmission then turns the wheels. In a parallel hybrid, both the electric motor and the gas engine can provide propulsion power. The other type is a series hybrid. In the series hybrid the gasoline engine turns a generator, and the generator can either charge the batteries or power an

Hybrid Vehicles 3
electric motor that drives the transmission, so the gasoline engine never directly powers the vehicle.
Hybrid vehicles have all of the parts that a normal gasoline powered car would have, with a few extra parts such as the electric motor, generator, and batteries. The electric motor on a hybrid car is very sophisticated. Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a generator. For example, when it needs to, it can draw energy from the batteries to accelerate the car. But acting as a generator, it can slow the car down and return energy to the batteries. The generator is similar to an electric motor, but it acts only to produce electrical power. It is used mostly on series hybrids. The batteries in a hybrid car are the energy storage devices for the electric motor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power the gasoline engine, the electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy to batteries as well as draw energy from them.
The key to a hybrid car is that the gasoline engine can be much smaller than the one in a normal gasoline powered car and makes it more efficient. According too Maggetto, this smaller engine can provide the power your car needs to keep up with the more powerful cars on the road. Compare a car like the Chevy Camaro, with its big V-8 engine, to the hybrid car with its small gas engine and electric motor. The engine in the Camaro has more than enough power to handle any driving situation. The engine in the hybrid car is powerful enough to move the car along on the freeway, but when it needs to get the car moving in a hurry or go up a steep hill, it needs help. That "help" comes from the
Hybrid Vehicles 4
electric motor and battery this system steps in to provide the necessary extra power.
Besides a smaller, more efficient engine, hybrids use many other tricks to increase fuel efficiency. Some of those tricks will help any type of car get better mileage, and some only apply to a hybrid. According too Gottlieb (1994), To squeeze every last mile out of a gallon of gasoline, a hybrid car can:
h Recover energy and store it in the battery - Whenever you step on the brake pedal in your car, you are removing energy from the car. The faster a car is going, the more kinetic energy it has. The brakes of a car ... more

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cars
History of Cars   By Kenny Carroll
Motor car, road vehicle which first appeared in the 19th Century. The steam propelled the first cars, but such vehicles were not a success and the age of the motor car really dates from the introduction of the petrol-driven horseless carriages of Gottfrield Daimler and Karl Benz (1885-86). The internal combustion engine for these cars had been developed earlier by several engineers, most notably by the German, Nickolaus Otto, in 1876. The main components of a motor car, from then till now, are a body or chassis to which are attached all other parts - including the engine or power plant, the transmission system for transferring the drive to the wheels, and the steering, braking and suspension mechanisms for guiding, stopping and supporting the car. A few experts assembled the first cars, but Henry Ford and R. E. Olds in the USA began modern mass-production in the early 1900s. By this means, the cost of a car was drastically reduced, and more people could afford done. In most modern car factories component parts are put together on assembly lines - slow-moving conveyor belts. Each worker usually has a specific task, example fitting doors or crankshafts. Bodies and engines are constructed on separate assembly lines, which converge when the engine is installed. Overhead rail conveyors move heavy components to and along the assembly lines, and lower them into position. At a later stage on the assembly line such items as lamps are fitted, and electrical, braking and control systems are tested. The fully assembled car is road tested before sale.



The automobile was not invented overnight. It took shape from an accumulation of technical advances that resulted in a light and efficient engine. The accepted "fathers of the modern motor car" are two Germans, Karl Benz (1844-1929) and Gottfried Daimler (1834-1900), who built their first petrol-fuelled motor vehicles within a few months of each other (1885-6).
More than a hundred years earlier, the first self-propelled road vehicle had rumbled through the streets of Paris at nearly 5km/h (3mph) when Nicolas Cugnot (1725-1804) demonstrated his steam-driven wagon.

The German Nikolas Otto (1832-91) made the first four-stroke internal-combustion engine in 1876 and in 1885 Daimler had installed a small four-stroke engine in a cycle frame. He drove his first four-wheeled petrol-driven vehicle round Cannstatt in 1886. In neighboring Mannheim, Benz had tested his three-wheeled car.
Daimler licensed the French firm of Panhard and Levassor to build his engine. Levassor placed it at the front of his crude car and it drove the rear road-wheels through a clutch and a gearbox. Thus in 1891 the first car to use modern engineering layout was seen. Within three years of the appearance of the first Panhard France was staging motor races on public road.
At the turn of the century, petrol, steam and electric power shared almost equal popularity for powering cars. Steam was well tried and reliable and electric vehicles held the land speed record. France had several established motor manufacturers - Panhard, Peugeot, Renault, Daracq, Delahaye and others; in Germany Benz had made the world's first standard production car, the Velo (1894), and the Daimler company was just about to present the

Mercedes to the public (1901).
In the United States (USA) the automobile would develop along different lines. There the car was seen not as a rich man's toy, but as a new method of communication in a continent in which travel had been restricted by a lack of roads and great distances.
Great Britain (UK), slow to start, had legislated for the car in 1896 when the road speed limits were raised and soon such companies as Lanchester, Daimler (of Coventry), Wolseley and Napier were producing cars.

Encouraged by the keen interest shown by

King Edward VII, motoring in Britain became an accepted method of travel - for the rich. Some British manufacturers began to contest French car supremacy and among them the partnership formed in 1904 between Charles Rolls and engineer Henry Royce was on of the most significant. At that time Henry Ford was preparing the motoring world for his Model T, this was introduced in 1908.
By 1910 automobile design had become fairly settled, with a side-valve four-(or six-) cylinder front-mounted engine. ... more

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