Depression In The Elderly


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depression in the elderly Adam's Paper

Fuel. Flame. Fire. Inferno. Ash.


Historically, the word holocaust meant a religious rite in which an offering was completely consumed by fire.  In current times the word holocaust has changed to a darker more tragic meaning and refers to more than a religious sacrifice.  During World War II, a fire raged throughout Eastern Europe.  Guns, bombs, and military groups did not ignite this fire.  This fire burned intensely in the hearts of men -- sparked by centuries-old prejudice.  One man, Adolf Hitler, took this flicker of hatred and fanned the flames.  Hitler energized and stoked the embers, spreading them throughout Eastern Europe causing widespread destruction in the pursuit of a perfect Aryan nation.  Although the Holocaust is measured over the course of twelve long years, it does not begin with the mass murder of innocent victims.  Michael Berenbaum, a survivor of the Holocaust believes, "Age-old prejudice led to discrimination, discrimination to incarceration, incarceration to elimination" (Altman 1).  Thus, the progression of prejudice in the Holocaust began as a flicker of hatred in the heart of a leader and became a blazing inferno consuming the lives of the men, women, and children who crossed its radical path.

After World War I, the social climate in Germany was depressing.  The German people were humiliated by their country's defeat and by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.  The financial depression that resulted left millions of individuals out of work.  The German government was weak, and the people sought new leadership.  These conditions provided an opportune setting for a new leader, Adolf Hitler, and his party, the National Socialist German Workers Party.  Hitler, reckless and powerful, was able to fan the flames of an ancient hatred into a wild and out of control holocaust (Altman 12).  

As with most hatred and prejudices, the hatred that fueled the Holocaust started with verbal abuse.  As soon as Hitler was named chancellor, he persuaded the cabinet to declare a state of emergency allowing him to end all personal freedom.  Among the rights lost were freedom of press, freedom of speech, and freedom of gathering.  He then voiced his beliefs in the supreme "Aryan" race.  As his beliefs spread, spoken or verbal abuse escalated.  Those who were not considered to be of the perfect "Aryan" race were jeered and mocked.  Fred Margulies, a survivor of the Holocaust, recalls: " When I was about ten years old there was a knock on my apartment-house door: and there was my best friend, Hans.  And he spat in my face, and he said 'Manfred, you dirtyJew' my best friend changed overnight" (Shulman 7).  The Jews endured burning words tossed at them consistently.  At first, they were told Jews were not desired, and finally, they were told Jews were prohibited.  Jews were not the only ones attacked.  Jehovah Witnesses, handicapped individuals, and foreigners were also considered racially and genetically poor.  These verbal attacks became the match that would ignite a much bigger fire.

Verbal attacks sparked an avoidance of those considered undesirable. On April 1, 1933, Hitler called for a boycott of all Jewish businesses.  Nazi storm troopers stood in front of stores owned by Jewish proprietors holding signs that warned: "Don't buy from Jews," "The Jews are our misfortune," and "Buy Aryan" (Bachrach 14).  Many Jews lost their businesses as a result of the boycott.  Restaurant signs cautioned, "No Jews or Dogs Allowed"(15).  Radio broadcasts and newspapers became Nazi advertisement tools to spread lies about the Jew.  Schools taught that the Aryans were the most intelligent race.  Pictures were displayed showing the sizes of different brains and always depicted the Aryan brain as the largest.  Furthermore, the people were told it was a sin against the German people, their ancestors, and the Aryans' future to associate with the Jews.  The Nazi Party distributed leaflets urging pure Germans to keep their distance from the Jews and to shun the Star of David with great ridicule (Shulman 35).  

The large-scale avoidance of the immoral Germans made German society more receptive to legalized discrimination.  The government was quick to pass laws that in essence torched Jewish citizenship and their legal standing within society.  The Nuremberg Laws prevented immoral Germans from being citizens, owning property, or ... more

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Insomnia

Thesis Statement
In this research paper I will attempt to familiarize you, the reader, on the role of sleep, health risks of sleeping disorder that is most common, Insomnia. I will give you some of the aspects which cause Insomnia and how it can be treated.
We human beings spend one third of our lives in a mysterious, potentially dangerous and seemingly unproductive state of unconsciousness---and no one knows exactly why. Scientists have attempted to study the effects of sleep and its role on our existence but have yet to come up with an accurate reason why we need sleep. Yes, we do need sleep. All animals, be they mammal, amphibian, aquatic, etc., need some form of sleep in order to rejuvenate their body and/or mind. Without sleep our bodies tend to experience some type of mental or physical malfunctions. Some of us human beings can even become down right incapable of proper social function. In other words, cranky frustrated emotional nutcases. So, sleep does play an important role in our daily functions, and no matter what we must fit it into our lives/schedule.
Edisons light bulb can be considered one of the major technological curses of the modern age, says sleep researcher Harvey Moldofsky, chief psychiatrist at Toronto Western Hospital. Edison believed that his light bulb would liberate us from the night and in the process transform our lives. The fact that the light bulb served as a reliable, controlled was to, banish the night, did not act as perhaps Edison hoped it would. Yet, it helped banish our need for sleep. And with this a change in our sleeping patterns. This is one of the ultimate causes of sleep problems.
Insomnia is the perception or complaint of inadequate or poor-quality sleep because of one or more of the following: difficulty sleeping, waking up too early, unrefreshing sleep, waking frequently through the night. When one has Insomnia it is difficult to initiate and/or maintain sleep. Some believe that Insomnia is not a disorder, it is a symptom that often indicated other problems. Other diagnosis, hold that Insomnia is the most common of all sleep disorders and perhaps the most frequent health complaint after pain. Severe cases can disrupt social and occupational function and is associated with depression, fatigue, and anxiety.
There are different types of Insomnia which affect our sleep patterns in many different ways. Types of Insomnia are:
 Sleep Onset Insomnia (delayed sleep Phase Syndrome): a disorder in which the major sleep episode is delayed in relation to the desires clock time which one wishes to be awakened.
 Idiopathic Insomnia: A life long inability to obtain adequate sleep that is due to an abnormality of the neurological control of the sleep-wake system.
 Psychophysiological Insomnia: A disorder or somatized tension (conversion of anxiety into physical symptoms) and learned sleep - preventing associated with results in a complaint of Insomnia and associated decreased functioning during wakefulness.
 Childhood Insomnia (limit-setting Sleep Disorder): Primarily a childhood disorder that is characterized by the inadequate enforcement of bed times by a caretaker with resultant stalling or refusal to go to bed at the appropriate time.
 Food Allergy Insomnia: A disorder of initiating and maintaining sleep due to an allergic response to food allergens.
 Environmental Insomnia (Environmental Sleep disorder): A sleep disorder disturbance due to a disturbing environmental factor that causes a complaint of either Insomnia or excessive sleepiness.
 Transient Insomnia (Adjustment Sleep Disorder): Represents sleep disturbance temporally related to acute stress, conflict or environmental change causing emotional agitation.
 Periodic Insomnia (Non 24-Hour Sleep-Wake Syndrome): Consists of a chronic steady pattern consisting of 1-2 hour daily delays in sleep onset and wake times in an individual living in society.
 Altitude Insomnia: An acute Insomnia usually accompanied by headaches, loss of appetite, and fatigue, that occurs following ascent to high altitudes.
 Hypnotic-Dependency Insomnia (Hypnotic Dependent Sleep Disorder): Characterized by Insomnia or excessive sleepiness that is associated with tolerance to or withdrawal from hypnotic medications.
 Stimulant Dependent Sleep Disorder: Characterized by a reduction of sleepiness or suppression of sleep by central stimulants and resultant alterations in wakefulness following drug abstinence.
 Alcohol Dependent Insomnia (Alcohol Dependent Sleep Disorder): Characterized by the sustained ingestion of sleep onset by the sustained ingestion ... more

depression in the elderly

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