Decide What Enhancements We Consider Unacceptable


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decide what enhancements we consider unacceptable Discuss the issues of publishing pictures that have been altered using a computer.


Picture and subject manipulations have been a part of photography since it was first invented. But because of computer technology, digital manipulations are relatively easy to accomplish, hard to detect and perhaps more alarming, alter the original image so that checking the authenticity of the picture is impossible. Some critics have predicted that in a few years, images -- whether still or moving -- will not be allowed in trials as physical evidence because of the threat to their veracity created by digital alterations.


So what's the problem? Why was there so much criticism from fellow journalists? The answer is that admitting to a lie doesn't make the lie acceptable.


Cameras and the images they produce are naively thought by many to never lie. But because humans operate the machine, technical, composition and content manipulations are unavoidable. Computer technology did not start the decline in the credibility of pictures, but it has hastened it. Photographic darkrooms are quickly being replaced by computer workstation lightrooms. But as long as photojournalists do not subtract or add parts of a picture's internal elements, almost any other manipulation once accomplished in a photographic darkroom is considered ethical for news-editorial purposes.


Two factors may guard against a further erosion of credibility in visual messages: Reputation of the media organization that publishes or broadcasts images and the words that accompany the manipulated picture.


Credibility is not an inherent quality of a particular picture, but a concept based on tradition, story choices, design considerations and reader perception of the company or individual that produces the image. Reputation is what separates the difference in picture credibility between The Times, the Sun


Words are also vital in assuring the credibility of a news organization and a picture. If a photojournalist or art director is tempted to combine parts from two separate pictures to create a third picture, the reader needs to know that such an action has taken place. The cutline for the image should include the details of the manipulation while the image itself should be labeled an illustration -- not a news-editorial picture. Such an addition would at least solve one aspect of the ethical problem -- letting the reader know of the illustrative technique.


However, a larger question remains: In this age of digital manipulation and desktop publishing, why do computer operators feel the need to turn news-editorial photographs into illustrations? Journalism professionals need to face the issue of photojournalism images being replaced by illustrations and not concern themselves so much with the tool that makes that ethical problem topical.


Ethics in Photojournalism


Photojournalism is defined in the readings of Mass Communications, by Michael


Emery and Ted Curtis Smythe, as the profession in which journalists make news-editorial


images for print or screen media. Ethics always has been, and has increasingly become


an important issue in photojournalism.


Background


The Society of Professional Journalists provides a code of ethics by which all


people in this profession should abide. Journalists should serve the public with


thoroughness and honesty. They should seek the truth and report it. They should make


sure headlines, photos, video, and sound bites do not misrepresent or mislead in anyway


(www.spj.org 2002). This is the most important rule in journalism-not to mislead the


public. If journalists do this, whether intentionally or accidentally, they lose credibility.


Without credibility, a newspaper or magazine has nothing.


This paper is going to examine the past ways in which newspapers and magazines


have deceived the public by publishing photos that have been digitally altered. Then both


sides of the debate, of whether it is acceptable to change a photo for publication in a


newspaper or magazine, will be presented.


The Debate


Due to the recent spread of computer technology, nearly anyone can alter and


manipulate photos so that they look completely different from the original. Obviously


there are always going to be some small technical changes that need to be made to photos


to make them more readable, such as color correction, contrast control, and removing


dust particles. According to the National Press Photographers Association, changes to


the content of a photograph can be accidental or essential. They describe essential


changes as changing the meaning of the photograph, and accidental changes as those that


change useless details, but do not change the real meaning. Ethics are only ... more

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Genetic Enhancement

Complaining about What is scarring people in these days is the possibility of cloning discoveries. At this point the question is: how this discovery will affect our society? And what is the scientists goal?. We all are worried about this discovery because what come out from scientists it is not really reassuring. Even scientists dont know what will be the long- terms effects of playing with genes if they might have bad results on patient's descendants. Moreover, by altering the natural course of nature on people, making them thinner, healthier we might increase marginalizazion and discrimination of people who cant or just dont want to be genetically enhanced.
In response to pressure from society, We should stop and think before allowed scientists to go on without strict controls. All the attention these days to concerns about human cloning has pushed other controversial areas of medical science into shadows. The first attempts are to carry out genetic enhancement in humans could soon be under way. The goal of genetic enhancement is not to treat people with diseases or abnormalities, but to make healthy people more attractive. To do so, it would employ the recombinant- DNA techniques from monocular biology that emerged in the 1970s. This permits scientists to remove individual genes from one organism and introduce them into another, even on another species.
Although we belief that The therapy aims to overcome health problems by giving the effected individuals the normal- or functioning- gene. Allowing genetic enhancement in more than a few very special cases poses real problems. First, the risks to the patient at present are very great compared with the possible benefits. We sill know very little about how they act- a single gene can have multiple effects in different parts of the body. Moreover, genes do not act alone: the ire effects are amplified, demitted, or counterbalanced by others genes in ways that we do not understand. We might be willing to expose a patient to great risks to treat grave disease. Subjecting someone risk is ethically unacceptable if the person seeking treatment is healthy.
Second, genetic enhancement may pose risks to others, particularly to patient's offspring. We do not know whether gene therapy might contaminate the genetic material of the gonads. Because of this, genetic enhancement might create serious enhancement unacceptably high when weighed against the possible benefits. Genetic enhancement might reinforce irrational societal prejudices. People who do not wish to be genetically enhanced eventually night be marginalized or suffer discrimination. We should not simply throw up hands and lament that nothing can be done to stop genetic enhancement.
Instead, we need to decide what enhancements we consider unacceptable, and to prevent their use. A helpful model is the moratorium that scientists imposed on themselves in the early 197s, when they had just discovered how to manipulate genetic material trough recombinant DNA techniques. If we do not establish some guidelines now, we are likely to find ourselves focusing only on the short term interests of an individual patient. Allowing the anxieties and biases of the moment to blur our judgement. Nor should we leave decisions about genetic enhancement to the whims of the market place or in the hands of patients or families. This may be too easily swayed by messages in the media about what standards of appearance, and behavior are acceptable. We need to decide what enhancements we consider unacceptable, and prevent their use.
Furthermore sometimes we forget the real importance of a human life, too often scientists treat human as animals because of their experiments. We all want to live in a good world preferably without any kind of illness, but if this means destroy our nature may be is time to think watts we are doing and were we are going to end. Medicine exists since the humane race exists, but in the past was different; it was an armless medicine created in order to take care of real ill people. On the other hand whiteout out the progress in medicine we wont survey in this way. We can certainly affirm that we have a cure for almost everything: beginning from the fever and ending.

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  • D: Discuss the issues of publishing pictures that hav D: Discuss the issues of publishing pictures that hav Discuss the issues of publishing pictures that have been altered using a computer. Picture and subject manipulations have been a part of photography since it was first invented. But because of computer technology, digital manipulations are relatively easy to accomplish, hard to detect and perhaps more alarming, alter the original image so that checking the authenticity of the picture is impossible. Some critics have predicted that in a few years, images -- whether still or moving -- will not be ...
  • E: Discuss the issues of publishing pictures that hav E: Discuss the issues of publishing pictures that hav Discuss the issues of publishing pictures that have been altered using a computer. Picture and subject manipulations have been a part of photography since it was first invented. But because of computer technology, digital manipulations are relatively easy to accomplish, hard to detect and perhaps more alarming, alter the original image so that checking the authenticity of the picture is impossible. Some critics have predicted that in a few years, images -- whether still or moving -- will not be ...
  • C: Genetic Enhancement C: Genetic Enhancement Genetic Enhancement Complaining about What is scarring people in these days is the possibility of cloning discoveries. At this point the question is: how this discovery will affect our society? And what is the scientists goal?. We all are worried about this discovery because what come out from scientists it is not really reassuring. Even scientists dont know what will be the long- terms effects of playing with genes if they might have bad results on patient's descendants. Moreover, by alteri...
  • I: Genetic Enhancement I: Genetic Enhancement Genetic Enhancement Complaining about What is scarring people in these days is the possibility of cloning discoveries. At this point the question is: how this discovery will affect our society? And what is the scientists goal?. We all are worried about this discovery because what come out from scientists it is not really reassuring. Even scientists dont know what will be the long- terms effects of playing with genes if they might have bad results on patient\'s descendants. Moreover, by alter...
  • D: Discuss the issues of publishing pictures that hav D: Discuss the issues of publishing pictures that hav Discuss the issues of publishing pictures that have been altered using a computer. Picture and subject manipulations have been a part of photography since it was first invented. But because of computer technology, digital manipulations are relatively easy to accomplish, hard to detect and perhaps more alarming, alter the original image so that checking the authenticity of the picture is impossible. Some critics have predicted that in a few years, images -- whether still or moving -- will not be ...
  • E: Discuss the issues of publishing pictures that hav E: Discuss the issues of publishing pictures that hav Discuss the issues of publishing pictures that have been altered using a computer. Picture and subject manipulations have been a part of photography since it was first invented. But because of computer technology, digital manipulations are relatively easy to accomplish, hard to detect and perhaps more alarming, alter the original image so that checking the authenticity of the picture is impossible. Some critics have predicted that in a few years, images -- whether still or moving -- will not be ...
  •  : Genetic Enhancement : Genetic Enhancement Genetic Enhancement Complaining about What is scarring people in these days is the possibility of cloning discoveries. At this point the question is: how this discovery will affect our society? And what is the scientists goal?. We all are worried about this discovery because what come out from scientists it is not really reassuring. Even scientists dont know what will be the long- terms effects of playing with genes if they might have bad results on patient's descendants. Moreover, by alteri...
  • W: Genetic Enhancement W: Genetic Enhancement Genetic Enhancement Complaining about What is scarring people in these days is the possibility of cloning discoveries. At this point the question is: how this discovery will affect our society? And what is the scientists goal?. We all are worried about this discovery because what come out from scientists it is not really reassuring. Even scientists dont know what will be the long- terms effects of playing with genes if they might have bad results on patient\'s descendants. Moreover, by alter...