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cupid Troilus And Criseyde By Chaucer

Chaucers epic poem, Troilus and Criseyde, is not a new tale, but one Chaucer
merely expanded upon. One of these expansions that Chaucers work has become
renowned for is the improvement of the characters. Generally, Chaucers
characters have more texture, depth, humanity, and subtlety than those of the
previous tales. Of the three main figures in the epic poem, Troilus, Criseyde,
and Pandarus, Pandarus is the character that Chaucer took the most liberty with,
creating and evolving Pandarus until he had taken on an entirely different role.
However, this is not to say that Chaucer did not add his own style to Troilus
and Criseyde. Chaucers continual development of the primary characters
definitely lend more interest and humor to the epic poem, Troilus and Criseyde.
The most interesting character by far is Pandarus. He serves as the protagonist
and go between for Troilus and Criseyde. In fact, one could argue if it were not
for him, Troilus may never have attained the brief affections of his lady love,
Criseyde. When Pandarus comes across an uneasy Troilus and inquires as to the
cause of his trouble, his speech is very eloquent. It is this speech that gives
the reader his first glimpse of how subtlety and indirectness will initially
characterize Pandarus. Further along the passage, Pandarus torments Troilus into
anger, causing him to reveal the source of his woe. (Chaucer 24-5). In regard to
the introduction of Pandarus, Kirby concludes: "Chaucer makes us feel
that here is a witty, likable chap who does not take life too seriously and who
does not hesitate to mingle friendly works with good-natured taunts." (127)
Pandarus also reveals that he is fairly well educated with his allusion to Niobe.
In addition to the revelation of his education, this also reveals Pandarus
penchant for a pattern of persuasion which he employs throughout his role.
"Pandarus thinks the that way to make a man do something that he does not
want to do is not to tell him bluntly and baldly what course of action he should
pursue, but rather, gradually to lead up to the main point, expanding on the
notion in various ways and especially by quoting sufficient authority and
testimony to show his plan is the correct one, in fact, the only one
possible" (Kirby 133). This demonstrates that not only does Pandarus have a
classical education, but that he also maintains some grasp on the concept of
psychology. Aside from the intellectual side of Pandarus, Chaucer develops a
very human aspect to this character. Chaucer purposefully places Pandarus in the
role of the unrequited lover, making him seem less feeble-minded. At the same
time however, Pandarus reasserts his illogical reasoning in order to convince
Troilus to divulge his heart wrenching secret. Even after Troilus curt
dismissal, Pandarus continues to badger the beleaguered knight, demonstrating
yet another strong personality characteristic: tenacity. This is supported by
Pandarus physically shaking Troilus. "And with that word he gan hym for to
shake,/And seyde, "Thef/ thow shalt hyre name telle,/But tho gan sely
Troilus for to quake/As though men sholde han led hym into helle,"(Chaucer
36). Consequentially frightened, Troilus tells Pandarus of his love for
Criseyde, Pandarus niece and even goes so far as to agree to enlist
Pandarus help in bringing his nieces heart to the beleaguered knight. In
his dealings with his niece, issues of Pandarus morality comes into being,
especially as his roll of the go-between for Troilus and Criseyde. "The
word pander, where he has bequeathed the English language, illuminates the
negative connotations that are put on his actions in modern meaning"
(Berkley Research 3). In regard to Pandarus selling of Criseydes honor,
one scholar believes that his loose morals would be fitting for someone of
younger years, but on an older man, it would be a serious affront to his
morality (Rosetti 177). A slightly more favorable view holds that as Pandarus is
beholden to aide a friend, Chaucer uses the characters charm to influence
readers to view the act as less of crime. Finally, one can take the opinion that
Pandarus actions coincide perfectly with the ideas of Courtly love and
therefore are less odious (Kirby 181). However grim these opinions maybe,
Chaucer, and as a result, Pandarus, takes the bull by the figurative horns and
addresses the issue. Criseyde questions Pandarus after his declaration of
Troilus love by saying: "Alas, for wo! Why nere I deed?/For of the
world the feyth is al agoon./Allas! what sholden straunge to me doon,/When he,
that for my beste frend I wende,/Ret ... more

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Botticelli
Botticellis masterpiece, Primavera, depicts a scene of slow moving grace in
what appears to be a mythical garden. The actual subject of this masterpiece is
unknown, but there are volumes of ideas concerning the purposes and meanings the
painting could have. Despite the confusion the painting is widely admired and
revered as Botticellis finest works. The scene appears to be a spring
morning, with a pale light penetrating the straight vertical trees in the
background. The trees appear to bear golden apples, a possible reference to the
myth of Venus and the golden apple which seems feasible considering Venus
appears in the center of the painting underneath the great canopy provided by
the trees. Golden apples are also the attribute of the Three Graces, the
handmaidens of Venus, also shown in this work. Chloris, the ancient Greek
goddess of flowers, is fleeing from Zephyr, the west wind of springtime whom
begets flowers, on the right side of the painting. When Zephyr catches her in
his embrace flowers spill from her lips and she transforms into Flora the Roman
goddess of flowers. Flora is depicted separately from Chloris and is dressed in
blossoms as she scatters flowers over the ground. In the center is a dignified

Venus with a promise of joy. Above Venus is the infant Cupid, blindfolded and
aiming his arrows of love. To the left the Three Graces dance in silent daydream
of grace. They are separated from the other figures in time as indicated by
their hair blowing in the opposite direction from Zephyrs gusts. The figure
on the extreme left is that of Mercury, messenger of the gods. He provides a
male counterpart to Zephyr. Zephyr is breathing love and warmth into McGaharan 2
a wintry world while Mercury is diverting this expression to a more culturally
acceptable form, considering the context of the time period, by opening the
scene to the gods. The scene has a dream like quality. The subject seems to be
ambivalent, the gentle yet strong colors give the figures presence and weight,
but the figures also seem insubstantial or dreamlike. The light figures of the
painting heavily contrast with the dark background of the woods. The ground does
not seem to be present but flowers are scattered on top of it adding to the
dreamlike state of the work. The picture is harmonized by the equal distribution
of figures over the picture plane. There is a slow moving rhythm to the way the
figures move added to by the various gestures of their arms, graceful and
elegant. It is interesting to note that the hand of the fleeing Chloris as it
overlaps, and appears to blend into, the arm of Flora. Botticelli lived from

1445 to 1510 in Florence. Despite his individuality as a Renaissance painter, he
remained little known for centuries after his death until his work was
rediscovered late in the 19th century. Botticelli was a pupil of the painter Fra

Filippo Lippi. He was commissioned to do this work after enjoying success over
his work Venus and Mars, an allegory of War and Love, for the Medici families.

Lorenzo di Piefrancesco deMedici enjoyed Mars and Venus so much he
commissioned Botticelli for two works, Primavera and The Birth of Venus. These
works are considered his best works. I chose this piece because I reviewed Mars
and Venus and found the elegance of Botticelli style captivating. The mystery of
this particular painting interested me. The fact that scholars cannot understand
the exact subject of the work adds an element of mystery to the work. ... more

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  • U: Troilus And Criseyde By Chaucer U: Troilus And Criseyde By Chaucer Troilus And Criseyde By Chaucer Chaucers epic poem, Troilus and Criseyde, is not a new tale, but one Chaucer merely expanded upon. One of these expansions that Chaucers work has become renowned for is the improvement of the characters. Generally, Chaucers characters have more texture, depth, humanity, and subtlety than those of the previous tales. Of the three main figures in the epic poem, Troilus, Criseyde, and Pandarus, Pandarus is the character that Chaucer took the most liberty with, cre...
  • P: Botticelli P: Botticelli Botticelli Botticellis masterpiece, Primavera, depicts a scene of slow moving grace in what appears to be a mythical garden. The actual subject of this masterpiece is unknown, but there are volumes of ideas concerning the purposes and meanings the painting could have. Despite the confusion the painting is widely admired and revered as Botticellis finest works. The scene appears to be a spring morning, with a pale light penetrating the straight vertical trees in the background. The trees appear...
  • I: Second Earl Of Rochester I: Second Earl Of Rochester Second Earl Of Rochester The satirists shared a talent for making other individuals feel uncomfortable, particularly by making them aware of their own moral inadequacies. They used irony, derision, and wit to attack human vice or folly. One method the satirist utilized to catch their readers\' attention, while also making them feel uncomfortable, was to describe those things that were deemed inappropriate to discuss openly in society. The classical example of a topic that was discussed behind cl...
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  • Character Construction In Chaucers Troilus And Cr Character Construction In Chaucers Troilus And Cr Character Construction In Chaucer\'s Troilus And Criseyde Character Construction in Chaucers Troilus and Criseyde Chaucers epic poem, Troilus and Criseyde, is not a new tale, but one Chaucer merely expanded upon. One of these expansions that Chaucers work has become renowned for is the improvement of the characters. Generally, Chaucers characters have more texture, depth, humanity, and subtlety than those of the previous tales. Of the three main figures in the epic poem, Troilus, Criseyde, a...
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