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criminal law International charter of human

International Declaration of Human Rights and Freedoms
History
After the war crimes committed by the Germans in the holocaust that occurred during World War II, the United nations decided to create  a document guaranteeing respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all people, regardless of race, sex, language, or religion. This document was called The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The declaration was voted in on December 10, 1948, which is now celebrated each year as Human Rights Day.  The Declaration says that all human beings are born free and equal and establishes basic rights for all people and rules for the actions of  governments in many areas pertaining to those rights. For example, it says that all people have the right to liberty, religious and political freedom, education, and economic well-being. It bans torture and states that all people have the right to participate in their governments.
The declaration is not a law, unfortunately, and in some cases has had little  actual effect on the member countries of the UN. Governments with poor human rights records, such as China, do not agree with the UNs attempts to promote human rights, saying that such actions interfere with their internal affairs.
The UN has a Commission on Human Rights. Its job is to monitor abuses of the declaration in member countries, hold international meetings on human rights issues and handle complaints about violations to the basic human rights.  
It was in 1993 that  the General Assembly created the position of High Commissioner for Human Rights. The commissioner job is to oversee all of the UNs human rights programs, work to prevent human rights violations, and investigate human rights abuses. It is also in the commissioners power to publicize abuses to human rights taking place in any country. However most publicity about abuses to human rights does not come from the UN but from  rival countries or non-governmental groups like Amnesty International
The UN has also written four international treaties on human rights. These treaties do have the force of law but are very hard to enforce. The treaties deal only with the problems of genocide, racial discrimination, civil and  political rights, and economic and social rights. These four treaties have only been signed by about half of the countries of the world. Notably the United States has only signed the treaty concerning genocide. Other countries have also refused to sign the conventions because of  concerns about the specific terms of the conventions and the loss of authority that such treaties imply.
Recent Human Rights Activities
The UNs most well known recent activities dealing with human rights are the two International Criminal Tribunals held to bring to justice those responsible for the horrible acts of violence committed during the  recent civil wars in the former countries of Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The tribunal for crimes committed in the former Yugoslavia was established by the UNs Security Council in 1993. The council started the Rwanda tribunal in 1994. They are the first  international war crimes trials since the Nrnberg Trials for Nazi war criminals  that followed World War II. Although the tribunals were established by the Security Council, they operated independently of the UN. The trials depend on contributions from countries to keep operating and were often hampered by financial shortages. Another  more serious problem was the inability to arrest suspects in countries that do not recognize the treaties brought in by the UN as valid. The Yugoslav tribunal indicted 75 people for war crimes and genocide, including the top military and political leaders of the Serb forces in Bosnia and a high officer in the Croatian militia in Bosnia but neither Serbia nor the Bosnian Serb forces have turned over suspects. The international military forces in Bosnia have also refused to arrest them. The president of Croatia actually gave an indicted officer a promotion and medals. In 1997 the tribunal had only a handful of low-ranking suspects to actually bring to trial.
Impact
Many critics of the UN claim that the International Declaration Of Human rights has had very little real impact on infringements to any of the rights outlined in it since it does not carry the force of ... more

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Early colonies

Early colonies

There were various reasons why the American Colonies were established. The three most important themes of English colonisation of America were religion, economics, and government. The most important reasons for colonisation were to seek refuge, religious freedom, and economic opportunity. To a lesser degree, the colonists sought to establish a stable and progressive government.
Many colonies were founded for religious purposes. While religion was involved with all of the colonies, Massachusetts, New Haven, Maryland, and Pennsylvania were established exclusively for religious purposes.
Massachusetts's inhabitants were Puritans who believed in predestination and the ideal that God is perfect. Many Puritans in England were persecuted for their nihilist beliefs in England because they felt that the Church of England, led by the King, did not enforce a literal enough interpretation of the Bible. Persecution punishment included jail and even execution. To seek refuge, they separated to go to Holland because of its proximity, lower cost, and safer passage. However, their lives in Holland were much different than that of England. The Separatists did not rebel against but rather preferred the English culture. They did not want their children to be raised Dutch. Also, they felt that Holland was too liberal. Although they enjoyed the freedom of religion, they decided to leave for America. Pilgrims, or sojourners, left for America on the Mayflower and landed in Cape Cod in 1626. They had missed their destination, Jamestown. Although the climate was extremely rocky, they did not want to move south because of their Puritan beliefs. They thought that everything was predestined, and that they must have landed on this rocky place for a reason. They moved slightly north to Plymouth Rock in order to survive more comfortably. Also because of their Puritan beliefs, they had good relations with the Native Americans. Their pacifist nature led the Indians to help with their crops. In thanks, the Pilgrims celebrated the first thanksgiving in 1621. A second group of Puritans in England, the Massachusetts Bay Company, came to Massachusetts for more economically motivated purposes due to their non-minimalist beliefs.
New Haven and Connecticut were two other colonies founded exclusively for Religious purposes. Many of the Separatists in Massachusetts felt that the religion was too liberal inside of the colony. They felt that the beliefs were not being enforced enough and that the people were not living through literal interpretations of the Bible. These Separatists further separated themselves from Massachusetts and formed a new colony, New Haven. Connecticut was founded by those separatists in Massachusetts who felt that the religion was too strict.
Yet another colony established for exclusive, religiously motivated purposes was Maryland. Roman Catholics, under George Calvert, the First Lord Baltimore, fled religious persecution in England from the Protestants. Due to the immediate wealth from tobacco harvesting, Protestants came over to the new colony seeking some of the wealth. Ironically, the Protestants began to outnumber the Catholics, therefore once again making them a minority although the Catholics had been trying to flee from the Protestants. In immediate response to the Protestant immigration, the Catholics set up the Maryland Toleration Act, which stated that all Christian religions would be tolerated. This was to ensure the survival of the Catholics in Maryland.
Pennsylvania also was founded for the sole purpose of religion, but unlike the other colonies, it began to increase toleration of religious diversity later on in the progression of its settlement. King Charles owed William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, a favor. Penn asked the King for some land in the colonies, in return the King gave Penn a piece of the woods (Sylvania) in the New World.
The Quakers, like the early Puritans, were pacifists and minimalists. They believed that God is perfect and had a strict interpretation of the Bible. Their beliefs included that mankind is evil and that every man is born a sinner. At the start of their settlement, they only accepted Christian beliefs. However, once settled in, they quickly proclaimed that all religions would be tolerated in Pennsylvania in order to populate their colony.
Many colonies were founded upon diverse religions because their primary focus and purpose was to make money or to populate the country. These economically motivated ... more

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