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concrete blocks Pedagogy V Andragogy

Consider the differences between the way in which children and adults learn

Introduction

In this assignment, I intend to consider the possible differences between the way in which children and adults learn. For instance, Piaget believed there to be schemes with four distinct stages of cognitive development.  Between birth and the time a child is ready for school, he/she will pass through two of the four stages.  These stages are the Sensorimotor Stage and the Preoperational Stage. Alternatively, it could be argued that our parents, teachers, and society as a whole condition us, to learn in a particular way, to take our place in society.  This, then in the words of Freire is:

the banking concept of education, in which the scope of action allowed to the student extends only as far as receiving, filing and storing the deposits. (Freire, 1970)

On the other hand, it is suggested, that adults learn from experience and reflection, therefore, it is the way in which people:

understand, or experience, or conceptualise the world around them. (Ramsden, 1992)  

The focus for them then, is gaining knowledge or ability through the use of experience.

These are two extremes of the spectrum of learning and there are, according to theorists such as Piaget, several stages in-between, these are: sensory-motor, pre-operational, concrete-operational and formal-operational.  I intend to look at these stages in detail in the main body of this assignment. Firstly, I intend to consider the meaning of learning and briefly look at the terms pedagogy and andragogy.


Learning

What is learning?  Learning is a process by which we change our behaviour and understanding.  We learn in many ways.  For instance, the cognitive orientation to learning, this could be said to be how children learn, (see child learning section).  Secondly, there is the humanistic orientation to learning, this could be said to be a personal act to fulfil potential, through experience and reflection.  Finally, we have the social/situational orientation to learning; this refers to the way we are pre-conditioned by society.


Child learning: Pedagogy

Firstly, we will look at the term pedagogy, pedagogy means the art and science of educating children and often is used as another word for teaching.  More correctly, pedagogy embraces teacher-focused education.  In the pedagogic model, teachers assume responsibility for making decisions about what will be learned, how it will be learned, and when it will be learned.  Therefore, teachers direct the learning.  This then, according to Friere (70) is the banking method of education.  This term will be considered in greater depth later in this assignment.

Piaget believed schemes apply the basis for future learning, the earliest schemes setting the stage for constructing new and more sophisticated schemes.  Even in a newborn baby, we can find the simplest of schemes.  For example, infants can suck from a bottle, but they quickly apply this to dummies and thumbs.  Later in life, schemes move from a physical sensory-motor focus to more mental aspects.  Toddlers can imagine blocks for stacking and put them to different uses, and eventually learn number schemes, which allow them to further organise their world in new ways.
Schemes develop in this way:
InfancyToddlerhoodChildhoodAdolescence
Action applied to objects Primarily sensory and motor systemsMental processes for organising action Objects, numbers and spatial relationsMental processes for organising self-concept and awareness. IdentityOrganisation of the abstract Meanings of abstract laws and notions, such as physics, life and origins.

Piaget believed there are four distinct stages of cognitive development.  For a complete explanation of these stages, see the table on Piagets stages of cognitive development.

Stage Age Characteristics
Sensorimotor 0-2 Years Your child will begin to make use of her ability to imitate, to think, and to memorise.  She will begin to realise that objects don't cease to exist when they are out-of-sight.  Her actions will become more goal-oriented, rather than motivated through reflexes.
Preoperational 2-7 Years Your childs language skills will begin to develop. She will be able to think in symbolic forms.  Your child will be able to think mental operations through in one direction.  Your child will have difficulty seeing another persons point of view.
Concrete Operational 7-11 Years Your child will be able to solve concrete, hands-on problems in logical fashion.  She will be able to understand laws of ... more

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Mount Adams

Mount Adams is one of the largest volcanoes in the Cascade Range, it is way
bigger then any of the surrounding mountains. Mount Adams has been less active
during the past few thousand years than its neighboring mountains of St. Helens,
Rainier, and Mt. Hood, it will erupt again. In the future the eruptions will
probably happen more often from vents on the summit and upper sides of Mount
Adams than from vents scattered in the volcanic fields beyond. Large landslides
and lahars that dont need to be related to eruptions probably will cause the
most destructive, far-reaching hazard of Mount Adams. Volcanoes create a variety
of geologic hazards during eruptions and when there isnt any eruptive
activity. During most of its history Mount Adams has shown a limited range of
eruptive styles only being lava flows, debris slides, and tephra falls. Very
explosive eruptions have been rare. Compared to the large explosive eruptions at
nearby Mount St. Helens during the past 20,000 years, the eruptions of Mount
Adams have been very mild. Eruptions at Mount St. Helens have covered areas more
than 120 miles downwind with ash deposits several centimeters or inches thick,
but those at Mount Adams have blanketed only areas a few miles away with a the
same thickness of ash. Even though theyre low levels of power and force,
eruptions at Mount Adams are still very hazardous. More importantly even during
times of no eruptive activity, landslides of weakened rock that originate on the
steep upper sides of Mount Adams have been a dangerous common thing and they can
start lahars, which are watery flows of volcanic rocks and mud that surge
downstream like rapid flowing concrete. Lahars also known as mudflows or debris
flows and they can destroy and kill everything in the valley floors that they
run down in to tens of miles from the volcano. The most often occurring type of
eruption that has happened at Mount Adams, as well as in the other volcanic
areas, produces lava flows, or streams of molten rock. These and older lava
flows usualy traveled less than 12 miles from the vents, but in some events
larger flows where as long as 15 to 30 miles. Typical lava flows on the lower
sections of the mountain and other places in the volcanic fields spread out onto
gentle slopes and funneled out into valleys. The moving flows were tens of feet
to more than 100 feet thick and where made up of crusty lava blocks covering a
more fluidish, liquid core. Their steep fronts moved very slowly at about only
about 330 feet per hour. Thats much more slowly than people typically walk.
Still, the lava flows will bury, crush, and burn all structures in their paths,
and hot lava boulders coming off flows make it very dangers to on lookers and
the also will start forest fires. A normal eruption consists of one main single
lava flow over a period of days or weeks and even of a sequence of flows erupted
over weeks to a few years. Eruptions that keep happening over years to decades
build a broad apron of lava flows on a side of a mountain or even build a
separate small volcano several 1,000 feet 6 miles or more in diameter. There is
a very large possibility of Mt. Adams erupting again very soon because it has
been a long time since the last time it awoke. The people and businesses in the
area need to be aware and cautious of the risk they are in by living and working
near the mountain like as it is with any other volcano. This mountain also
provides a great place for hiking, biking, skiing, and many other things that
would be ruined if this mountain was to awake. It is a very scenic beautiful
mountain that has the potential to do what Helens has done.

Geography ... more

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