Looking for essays on concerned with death? We have thousands of essays on this topic and more.
No other country- not even China or India had such a long history as Ancient
Egypt. For nearly, 3,000 years before the birth of Jesus, the Egyptians had
already a high developed civilization. The Egyptians lived in an orderly
government; they built great stone structures; most of important of all they
established an acquired religion. For the Egyptians there was no break between
their religious beliefs and their daily life. Even their culture would all lie
at the bottom compared to their religious beliefs. For an example, Egyptian art
was never reflected as a representation; however, it was a sense of symbolic
pictures that spoke of the life of the gods and the hope of eternity to come.
This desire for the renewal of life, and the creative urge to ensure it by
ritual and symbolism existed in Egypt from the earliest times of the Neolithic
Era. Archaeologist were able to uncover clay figurines of Osiris laced with
sprouting corn. As the corn grew the model would open, as an image of life-in-
death. Archaeologist were also able to find that their people also liked to keep
the dead close to them. The Egyptians soon came to believe deeply that the good
administration of the dead, just like the management of the Niles water could
lead to an everlasting life. Many think of the Ancient Egyptians as a morbid,
death-obsessed people. We think of this because all of what we have uncovered is
mummies, tombs, and graves. However, we know more about the Egyptians in death
than what we know about their lives. Since, the earliest times the Egyptians
were very passionately concerned with the continued existence of their loved
ones and their souls. The idea that Osiris had passes through death and risen
into a new life was deeply rooted in the Egyptian consciousness that Osiris had
to struggle against the forces of evil. So did the human soul now following him
to gain eternity. By 2,500 BCE, helpful instructions, known as the pyramid texts
were carved or painted on tomb walls to help the soul act in the various trials
of it journey in the Netherworld (also referred to as the Under World). A
thousand years later, in the New Kingdom, these instructions had been formalized
into The Coming into Day, or The Egyptian Book of the Dead. This magical text
for the underworld journey was a set of spells, incantations, and mummification
techniques designed to help the dead person resurrect into a glorious afterlife
in heaven, or The Hall of the Two Truths. These mystical texts are
from the New Kingdom. The similar ones that were found in the pyramids from the
Old Kingdom, and the coffins were from the Middle Kingdom. One can imagine these
text by thinking about how church rituals are run. One goes to church, and the
rituals are holy texts that come from a book known as the bible or genesis. In
Ancient Egypt, these burial rituals are not read from a book. At first, they are
read directly off of the wall in inner chambers of a pyramid; later they were
read directly off sides of the coffins. The Coming into Day, which was from the
New Kingdom, was read off of papyrus sheets, much as religious rituals are today
as they are read out of books. The Book of the Dead was to be relatively cheap
to purchase. As an Egyptian that had more riches in the New Kingdom, one would
be able to buy a copy that would have blanks where the names go. A scribe would
be hired to insert the name in all those blank spots. In the text, the blank
spots were the name of the deceased. The letter N indicates it. If there
were no name to be put in it they would refer to the Dead person as N.
Wealthy Egyptians had a personalized version prepared before their death so many
versions have been discovered. One of the most famous one was created for Ani, a
Royal Scribe, who lived during the nineteenth dynasty, and died in 1250 BC. If
one were to die or a loved one dies, one would be buried with the papyrus
scroll. As a result, a few of these texts survived. In the book the body was
represented as the Ka. The Ka was the spiritual body that everyone had, which
was the mirror image of the physical body. When a person died it was the Ka,
which lived on in ... more
Find essay on Concerned With Death
Irony Moll Flanders
I love but hate, I laugh without a smile, I am ridiculous and respected, hypocrite and honest, a nonsense with reason , a convict and a gentleman. Isn't that the world we live in ? He is using a subtle form of humour by saying things that he does not mean. This situation is odd or amusing because it involves a contrast. Irony kills, laughs, denounces, argues but is hidden behind words to look not so politically incorrect. Daniel Defoe was one of those who wanted to denounce society's incongruities. He used his character, Moll Flanders, as an archetype of 18th century England society depicting the cruelty and the immorality of the time. In this autobiography (the novel is written in the first person) Moll's life seems to be fill of contrasts and ironic situations, but is that not interpretation? This essay will discuss the irony in the novel Moll Flanders taking examples from the book to prove whether or not it should be considered as a ironic novel. Let's have a look at the interpretations that one may have.
As a preliminary, it must be noted that Moll has a basically bipartie structure, the first part containing Moll's sexual adventures, the second her life as a thief, her imprisonment, and her transportation to America. The difference here, however, is that Defoe has effected an organic rather than a merely schematic relationship between the two halves. The episode of the two brothers, an episode which is crucial to our understanding of the novel's irony. Moll is seduced by the elder brother of the family in which she is a maid, then is persuaded by him to marry Robin, the younger brother, who loves her and proposed to her. She is a bewildered, passive object in the centre of the family dispute: her position is no sooner established as the elder's brother mistress, than he suggests that she should accept Robin's offer of marriage, thus becoming his sister where formerly she was his whore later affirming: " I shall always be your sincere friend, without any inclination to nearer intimacy, when you become my sister" . He presses her hard, and the traumatic effect the affair has on Moll is symbolized in her near-fatal illness. Not surprisingly, after her marriage she succumbs to incestuous fantasies:" I was never in bed with my husband but I wished myself in the arms of his brother; ... I committed adultery and incest with him every day in my desires, which, without doubt, was as effectually criminal in the nature of the guilt as if I had actually done it" . Robin dies after five years, and there is an interval consisting of two main episodes, in one of which Moll marries a gentleman-tradesman who, faced with financial ruin, leaves her "a widow bewitched; I had an husband and no husband" ; and in the second of which Moll helps a young lady avenge herself on a captain who regarded her as too easy a conquest.
The notion of revenge on the male, and the fact that it is Moll who is taking the initiative, and not members of the opposite sex, are indicative of a radical change of character. It is indeed ironic, then, that by making the initiative Moll should soon land herself in a situation which strongly resembles her earlier one with the two brothers: she now courts and marries her own brother.
She discovers the truth only when she is on her husband's plantation in Virginia and his mother narrates her life story. As she listen to it, Moll gradually gathers " that this was certainly no more or less than my own mother, and I had now had two children, and was big with another by my own brother", following this with declaration which echoes the one quoted above from page 68 "I lived therefore in open avowed incest and whoredom, and all under the appearance of an honest wife; and though I was not much touched with the crime of it, yet the action had something in it shocking to nature, and made my husband, as he thought himself, even nauseous to me." At first she conceals the ... more
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