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Rhetorical Criticism of Cross
William Jennings Bryan
Cross of Gold Speech
Lets begin by analyzing and explaining the theory of metaphoric criticism. A metaphor, as defined by Aristotle, is the transference of a name from the object to which it has a natural application. A metaphor is decoration, ornamentation, and figurative language to a rhetor. They are not needed but create unordinary speech. Metaphors serve as heuristic tools for suggesting new hypothesis, new areas of research, and new research strategies. They also function as rhetorical devices for communicating ideas. Lets consider uses of metaphor as tools for thought and communication. The tool function of metaphor is to extend the capacity of active memory using the medium speech; while the function of metaphor as a tool for thoughtis to extend our capacities for perceiving relationships in the perceptual domain to the conceiving of relationships in the conceptual domain. A criticism is an analysis or finding a fault of something. Together, the two definitions compose a metaphoric criticism. There are four steps to using metaphors as a unit of analysis; Formulating a research question and selecting an artifact, selecting a unit of analysis, analyzing the artifact, and writing the critical essay.
In applying the theories of metaphoric criticism, I will focus on two metaphors used throughout the Cross of Gold speech. The first use of metaphors is to convey violent acts to show the wrongfulness in changing the gold standard. Bryan refers back to fighting, contest, and war to show that the people are not going to go along with the government. Bryan speaks of brother against brother, father against son to show that part of the government is on the same level as the citizens and another part is above the rest. But when the citizens clad in armor, they will be stronger and overcome the wrath of the government. WJB refers to the office as the plank which declares against life tenure. What is shown here is the opposition of what is being built up by the plank in Washington. The life tenure being built is opposed, and excludes from participation in official benefits the humbler members of society.
Why would the battle of Waterloo and St. Helena be mentioned in this rhetoric? It is to show of things gone bad, as is Mr. McKinleys reputation when he rebuts against his nation. When he is in favor of fastening the gold standard upon this country, or who is willing to surrender the right of self-government, the battle, wars, contest, fighting, and challenges are made. He talks about enemies in battle and who shall win to refer to the government against the people and vice versa. The battle is between the citizens of the country and the government and there shall be a winner. Who the enemy is determined by the audience. But WJB is referring to the government and how their actions are not in favor of the people. His appeal, furthermore, is to labor and to the farmer, in a day when feeling is creeping through the country that the gold standard acts as a brake upon the enlarged earning capacity of those who work with their hands. You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, Mr. Bryan exclaiming at the close of his oration depicts how the governments actions are against the people. The government is trying to hurt the people but they will not allow it to happen without a dispute. You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.
WJB linked broadened prosperity directly to agriculture and to the purchasing power of labor. He struck out forcefully at the conservative debate that true prosperity requires first at stable base for invested wealth, from which prosperity grows. He says that ones riches maybe anothers resource. The more privileged should not be able to destroy the less fortunate by taking what they have made and burn it to the ground. They should help them build on it and make it stronger.
So, What? The idea of the interaction view is that in the most interesting cases metaphors create similarity, rather than state some pre-existing similarity. They thus produce new knowledge by projecting the ... more
Find essay on Concept Of Critical
A firms international marketing program must generally be
modified and adapted to foreign markets. This international
marketing program uses strategies to accomplish its
marketing goals. Within each foreign nation, the firm is
likely to find a combination of marketing environment and
target markets that are different from those of its own home
country and other foreign countries. It is important that in
international marketing, product, pricing, distribution and
promotional strategies be adapted accordingly. In order for
an international firm to function properly, cultural, social,
economic, and legal forces within the country must be
clearly understood. The task of International marketing is
more difficult and risky than expected by many firms.
One of the most controlling factors of international
marketing is management. It is very important for managers
to recognize the differences as well as similarities in buyer
behavior. Many mistakes can occur if managers fail to
realize that buyers differ from country to country. It is the
international differences in buyer behavior, rather than
similarities, which cause problems in successful international
marketing. An international marketing manager is a
manager responsible for facilitating the exchange of
products between the organization and its customers or
clients. Sometimes an international marketing manager will
find difficulties in completing the exchange of products.
Many surprises in international business are undesirable
human mistakes. An international corporation must fully
understand the foreign environment before pursuing
business matters. Problems constantly crop up and many
times have unexpected results. Sometimes these
unexpected results are unavoidable. Other times they are
avoidable. To be sure those avoidable situations do not
occur, international marketing managers must be aware of
Cultural differences take place among most nations of the
world. Differences in culture are one of the most significant
factors in an international company. All nationalities posses
unique characteristics, which are unknown to many
foreigners. Many of the top international businesses are
unaware of these cultural differences. It is very important to
understand these cultures in order to market a product
successfully. As an example, different nationalities have
different beliefs on how business matters should take place.
Where some countries prefer to work with a deadline other
countries can take this as being offensive. Many countries
feel it is an insult to be asked to work under a set time
period. A country may feel that a deadline is threatening
and may feel backed into a corner. On the other hand,
other countries try to expedite matters by setting deadlines.
To be effective in a foreign market it is necessary to
understand the local customs. Knowing what to do in a
foreign country is as important as knowing what not to do.
Failure to understand local customs can lead to serious
misunderstandings between business people. The simple
rejection of a cup of coffee can lead to total confusion. The
decline of an invite is sometimes considered an affront. To
avoid making blunders, a person must be able to discern
the difference between what is acceptable behavior and
what is not acceptable behavior. Violations of a local
custom can be insulting, and can cause uncomfortable
situations. To be a successful manager of international
marketing, one must be able to discern the differences as to
what must and must not be done. It is almost impossible to
attain complete knowledge and understanding of a foreign
As established, culture plays an important role in the drama
of international marketing. Of all the cultural aspects,
communication may be the most critical. It is certain that
communication has been involved in a number of cultural
confusion. Good communication linkages must be set
between a company and its customers, suppliers, its
employees, and the governments of the countries where it
performs business activities. Poor communication can
obviously cause various difficulties. One source of difficulty
among starting companies is that of effective
communication with potential buyers. The problem is that
there are many possible communication barriers.
Sometimes messages can be translated incorrectly,
regulations overlooked, and economic differences can be
ignored. Other times when the message does arrive, its
ineffectiveness can cause it to be of no value. Every now
and then a buyer will receive the message, but to the
companies disappointment, the message was sent incorrect.
It is normal in multinational businesses to send and receive
messages on a regular basis. Many well-known people
have incapacitated public speech introductions by using
inaccurate titles and names. Not all communication
problems are verbal. Some serious problems have
occurred as a result of non-verbal communication.
Non-verbal communication exist in numerous forms.
Sometimes a persons appearance can convey a stronger
message than intended. Untidy attire, for example, can be
more offensive in some nations than in others. The local
people often are willing to overlook most of the mistakes
made by tourist. On the ... more
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