Competition Law


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competition law Middle Ages

The history of the modern world derives from thousands of years of human history.  Embedded in its history are the many eras of man which have constructed our modern learning, art, beliefs, and order.  The middle ages, although represented as dark, backwards, and idle, were in fact a bridge linking the classical and modern world.  Medieval society may not have been in a sense glorious, but the era of itself was a prime foundation of the modern worlds newfound stability, a revival of the law and teachings from the classical era, a reinvestment and reform in the church, and a precursor to the golden age of art.
The government of the middle ages, as convoluted and variable as it was, ended up giving way to a powerful revival of monarchial control.  The feudal age had erupted due to the monarchs inability to rule and defend holistically its country during Norse and foreign invasions in the 700s to 1000s AD.  The emphasis shifted instead to local lords and nobles who drew the kings power for greater local stability.  This system flourished under an influenced and uneducated nation, however, the rise of the middle and working classes put a change to that.  Skilled merchants began to form guilds, universities and learning groups educated citizens, and a strengthening economy led the middle classes to object to feudal lords taxes and form their own charters of towns.  The educated middle class was now able to run their town fairly efficiently, which in turn, decreased influence of feudal lords and revived the power and influence of the monarchy.  The king could now depend on his educated townspeople to run their town.  AS revolutionary as the transition was to the feudal system, the practice proved to be efficient in the modern world.
The influence of universities and merchants, as seen, changed the kingdom.  Medieval universities were first formed in the 12th century AD after a need for educated public officials became evident.  Schools like the Law School at Bologna as well as medical schools gave towns lawyers, judges and capable local officials.  Other schools like the University of Paris taught scholars literature and theology.  The breed of Renaissance thinking was most likely developed in such places.  Scholars like Peter Abelard and Thomas Aquinas led an interest in the study of classical Greek and Roman philosophy.  This interest, along with challenged perspectives of the time eventually led to modern science.  Guilds, as afore-mentioned, were monopolistic practices over certain trades set by merchants.  They virtually eliminated competition and ensured quality.  Compared to Renaissance art, and Shakespearean and Elizabethan literature the precursor saw little.  However, works like Chaucers Canterbury Tales were popular, and the Gothic architectural style laid a foundation for many cathedrals and buildings.  It is still a dominant facade in todays world and was relished in modern Western Europe.  A powerful education system and study of art are necessary for societys to flourish and carry its roots into the next era; the effects of the middle ages therein are obvious.  The middle ages staged to recall and then reform the religious concepts of the day.  Since all aspects of society, including religious, are influenced by a changing society, the religion of the middle ages progressed accordingly.  The feudal age of religion may have witnessed a hierarchy in its system, but as the ages progressed, society, including kings and church scholars, argued for a reform in church government.  Likewise, as scholars found contradictions in religion, church practices were challenged and the very popes and bishops were unpopular.  The ideas and preaching of those like John Wycliffe and Jan Hus faced the church with a possible full-scale rebellion.  The church willingly compromised, however these were early warning signs of the reformations of the modern world.  The church, try as it might, could not barge a developing society and mind.  
The developments of the political, cultural, and religious societies of the middle ages influenced each other and were in turn influenced by the people.  The early middle ages and the whole age in general might be looked at as backward, however the changes it inspired need only be seen in the vibrant modern world that would follow.  Solely based on its ... more

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Status Of Transition From Socialism

Vietnam is a country whose economy is evolving.  Its rapidly changing economy is facing significant alterations in the process of transition.  Vietnam is moving away from its current economy, which is a non-market socialist one, towards a market economy with a socialist orientation.  Vietnam is one of the poorest countries in the world with a Gross Domestic Product of only $300.  High levels of population along with the proper training will allow Vietnam to effectively use its number one resource, people.  Australia plays a key role in assisting Vietnam's economic growth and development through their aid programs.
Economic reforms are changing Vietnam from an agricultural rich economy to a service industry one.  Throughout the years, agriculture, as a percent of Gross national product, has decreased from year to year, while service and industrial are increasing.  This steady decline is because of the changing situation with its economy.  With this decrease, migration to cities and towns is usually normal, but not in this case, as Vietnam has stayed primarily rural.  The main agricultural cash crops in Vietnam are rice, coffee, cashews, corn potatoes rubber, soybean and tea.  Clothing, computers and electronics are a growing part of the economy as well.  Tourism is the largest industry in the service sector.
In Vietnam land sales are not permitted.  This is because of the communist rule, and the ownership of all land by the state.  During the current economic reform to a market system of economy, household farms have replace the once popular collective farms.  Land rights are guaranteed to the families for twenty years on farmland and fifty years for forestland.  Though the farmers can still not own land they do have the right to use it, rent it, inherit it, and well as claim it as collateral.
The changing economy has caused the industrial and service sectors to steadily expand.  With this increase, many  are being dominated by state owned industries.
Along with the escalating change towards a market economy, competition within the private sector has also risen due to the fact that state owned enterprises are increasing as well.  If these state owned enterprises were private then economic efficiency would be increased as well.  This in turn would benefit the Vietnam economy and people.  The government has instated rules so this can happen.  They have also forced the state owned enterprises to be self- sufficient.  They are now highly self-sufficient.  They are self-run, determine what their production inputs and outputs are, and are responsible for the financing and accounting of their firm.  Though they seem to be individual entities, the government still has a strong hold on them because the governments has complete ownership of the firm, even though there are shareholders.  
With the institution of Doi Moi the economy of Vietnam has experienced a very strong growth.  The past decade the Gross Domestic Product averaged 7.5%.  Throughout the most recent years the growth has not been as severe but still positive.  It was gaining strength as 2000 began but has been slowing down.  There is still a positive growth but not as significant as in the mid 90s.  See following chart for the Real GDP Growth in %.



Towards the end of the 90s many factors accounted for this slow down.  Economics reforms were slowing as well.  State owned enterprises and banks were becoming inefficient as well. This, along with a decrease in demand and consumption, a decrease in foreign and local investing, as well as a decrease in outputs all contributed to the slow down in economic growth.  So, as this slow down became evident, changes needed were made in order to increase the GDP.  In the year 2000, certain things happened which did in fact raise the growth in real GDP.  The world economy was growing and manufacturing and commodity prices were improving as well.  Along with a rapid growth in the industrial sector as well as the non-state sector Vietnam was able to recover from a slowing GDP growth quickly.
In order to accelerate the economic growth more and reduce the poverty, which seems to be plaguing the country, the Vietnam Government installed Doi Moi reforms.  This process was accelerated by the collapse of the Soviet Union, formerly Vietnam's ... more

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  • O: Middle Ages O: Middle Ages Middle Ages The history of the modern world derives from thousands of years of human history. Embedded in its history are the many eras of man which have constructed our modern learning, art, beliefs, and order. The middle ages, although represented as dark, backwards, and idle, were in fact a bridge linking the classical and modern world. Medieval society may not have been in a sense glorious, but the era of itself was a prime foundation of the modern worlds newfound stability, a reviv...
  • M: Status Of Transition From Socialism M: Status Of Transition From Socialism Status Of Transition From Socialism Vietnam is a country whose economy is evolving. Its rapidly changing economy is facing significant alterations in the process of transition. Vietnam is moving away from its current economy, which is a non-market socialist one, towards a market economy with a socialist orientation. Vietnam is one of the poorest countries in the world with a Gross Domestic Product of only $300. High levels of population along with the proper training will allow Vietnam to effect...
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