Communist Party Of The Soviet Union


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communist party of the soviet union Cuba's Politics

While the isle of Cuba was initially discovered on October 27, 1492 during one
of Columbus first voyages, it wasnt actually claimed by Spain until the
sixteenth century. However, its tumultuous beginnings as a Spanish sugar
colony provides an insightful backdrop into the very essence of the countrys
political and economic unrest. From its early revolutionary days to the
insurrectional challenge of the Marxist-Leninist theories emerged the
totalitarian regime under Fidel Castro in present day Cuba. Cuban colonial
society was distinguished by the characteristics of colonial societies in
general, namely a stratified, inegalitarian class system; a poorly
differentiated agricultural economy; a dominant political class made up of
colonial officers, the clergy, and the military; an exclusionary and elitist
education system controlled by the clergy; and a pervasive religious system.1
Cubas agrarian monocultural character, economically dependant upon sugar
cultivation, production and export severely restricted its potential for growth
as a nation, thereby firmly implanting its newly sprouted roots firmly in the
trenches of poverty from the very beginning of the countrys existence. In
1868, Cuba entered in to The Ten Years War against Spain in a struggle for
independence, but to no avail. Ten years of bitter and destructive conflict
ensued, but the goal of independence was not achieved. Political divisions among
patriot forces, personal quarrels among rebel military leaders, and the failure
of the rebels to gain the backing of the United States, coupled with stiff
resistance from Spain and the Cubans inability to carry the war in earnest to
the western provinces, produced a military stalemate in the final stages.2 The
war had a devastating effect on an already weak economic and political
infrastructure. The defeat, however, did not hinder the resolution of the Cuban
proletariat for an independent nation. In the words of one author, The Cubans
ability to wage a costly, protracted struggle against Spain demonstrated that
proindependence sentiment was strong and could be manifested militarily. On the
other hand, before any effort to terminate Spanish control could succeed,
differences over slavery, political organization, leadership, and military
strategy had to be resolved. In short, the very inconclusiveness of the war left
a feeling that the Cubans could and would resume their struggle until their
legitimate political objectives of independence and sovereignty were attained.3
The years following the Ten Years War were harsh and austere. The
countryside, ravaged and desolate, bankrupted Spanish sugar interests in Cuba,
virtually destroying the industry. The Spanish owners sold out to North American
interests, a process accelerated by the final abolition of slavery in Cuba in
1886.4 The end of slavery, naturally, meant the end of free labor. The sugar
growers, therefore, began to import machinery from the United States.
Essentially, Cuba deferred its economic dependence from Spain directly to the
U.S. What became known as the American Sugar Refining Company supplied from
seventy to ninety percent of all sugar consumed by the United States, thus
mandating the direction of the Cuban agricultural industry and thereby
controlling its economy. Moreover, the United States interventionism in the
Cuban-Spanish war in 1898, motivated primarily by interests in the Cuban market,
led the surrender of the Spanish army directly to the United States, not Cuba.
This war later became known as the Spanish-American War. The leader and
organizer of the Cuban Revolutionary Party, Jose Martis, goal of true
independence was buried without honor in 1898.5 In the years from 1902 to 1959,
following the institution of the Platt Amendment, which was an amendment to the
Cuban constitution, that stated that the United States had the right to
intervene in Cuba at any time, a period which came to be termed the Pseudo
Republic ensued. In the words of General Wood: Of course, Cuba has been left
with little or no independence by the Platt Amendment...The Cuban Government
cannot enter into certain treaties without our consent, nor secure loans above
certain limits, and it must maintain the sanitary conditions that have been
indicated. With the control that we have over Cuba, a control which, without
doubt, will soon turn her into our possession, soon we will practically control
the sugar market in the world. I believe that it is a very desirable acquisition
for the United States. The island will gradually be Americanized, and in
the due course we will have one of the most rich and desirable possessions
existing in the entire world...6 The Great Depression however, had a immense
impact on United States holdings of the Cuban sugar industry. In the summer
and fall of 1920 when the price of sugar fell from twenty-two cents a pound to
three ... more

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Reasons For The Cold War

The Cold War With the aim of preventing East Germans from seeking asylum in the West, the East German government in 1961 began constructing a system of concrete and barbed-wire barriers between East and West Berlin. This Berlin Wall endured for nearly thirty years, a symbol not only of the division of Germany but of the larger conflict between the Communist and non-Communist worlds. The Wall ceased to be a barrier when East Germany ended restrictions on emigration in November 1989. The Wall was largely dismantled in the year preceding the reunification of Germany. The victorious Allies agreed to give most of Eastern Germany to Poland and the USSR, and then divide the rest into four zones of occupation. However, they could not agree of whether or how to reunite the four zones. "As Cold War tensions grew, stimulated in part by the German situation itself, the temporary dividing line between the Soviet zone in the East and the British, French, and U.S. zones in the West hardened into a permanent boundary. In 1949, shortly after the Western powers permitted their zones to unite and restore parliamentary democracy in the Federal Republic of Germany, the Russians installed a puppet regime of German Communists in the East, creating the German Democratic Re-public."(Niewyk, 1995) According to Galante (1965, p.vii) "a city is the people who live in it. Berlin is 3,350,000 people in twenty boroughs. A rich city of factories, an airy city of farms and parks and woods and lakesOn Sunday, August 13, 1961 Herr Walter Ulbricht stopped that. He built the Wall." One reason for the building of the Wall was due to the more than fifty-two thousand East Berliners who crossed the border everyday to work in West Berlin. These people were referred to as the "grenzgaenger or border crossers." "East Berliners said the grenzgaenger were parasite who should stay and work on the East side of the boundary, for the benefit of Communism and the prosperity of the German Democratic Republic."(Galante, p.3) Gelb (1986, p.3) states, "Berlin was where the Cold War began with a Soviet blockade, where Soviet and American tanks faced each other virtually snout-to-snout for the first time, and where the grisly game of nuclear brinkmanship was introduced." The Wall was constructed of concrete and steel and barbed wire. It was 28 miles long, if straightened it would measure 103 miles long, dividing on of the greatest cities in the world. On side was painted white and one side was covered with graffiti. "But there is more to the Wall than just this wall. Behind it, one hundred yards deeper into Communist territory, is another concrete barrier almost as formidable. The leveled area between the two is a desolate, dangerous no-man's-land, patrolled by kalashnikov-toting guards, dotted with free-fire machine-gun emplacements, and sown in places with landmines. It is punctuated with 285 elevated watchtowers, more suited to prison camps than city centers, and by a series of dog runs where ferocious, long leashed Alsatians effectively run free. It is not a safe place to be."(Gelb, p.4) Approximately 5000 people managed to escape to the West, 80 died trying. There is no known record of anyone trying to escape in the other direction. "The poor quality and construction is a result both of the speed with which the first sections were erected and the fact that no foundation was prepared."(Galante, p.8) On August 13, 1961, East German troops began stretching coils of barbed wire across the border checkpoints between East and West Berlin, inhibiting free transit between the two sectors as guaranteed under the Four-Power Pact that governed the city. Within days the wire was replaced by 28 miles of compressed rubble, "and now the historic Berlin Wall became a hideous symbol of the economic and political schism in Germany."(Cate, preface) For 28 years the Berlin Wall kept people in, and kept people out. It separated friend and family. It divided a nation, a continent, a world. The story of seventeen-year-old Ursula Heinemann who "still had not recovered from the shock of being separated from her mother. Although she was certain that she had done the right thing in escaping to the West, she ... more

communist party of the soviet union

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