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Status Of Transition From Socialism
Vietnam is a country whose economy is evolving. Its rapidly changing economy is facing significant alterations in the process of transition. Vietnam is moving away from its current economy, which is a non-market socialist one, towards a market economy with a socialist orientation. Vietnam is one of the poorest countries in the world with a Gross Domestic Product of only $300. High levels of population along with the proper training will allow Vietnam to effectively use its number one resource, people. Australia plays a key role in assisting Vietnam's economic growth and development through their aid programs.
Economic reforms are changing Vietnam from an agricultural rich economy to a service industry one. Throughout the years, agriculture, as a percent of Gross national product, has decreased from year to year, while service and industrial are increasing. This steady decline is because of the changing situation with its economy. With this decrease, migration to cities and towns is usually normal, but not in this case, as Vietnam has stayed primarily rural. The main agricultural cash crops in Vietnam are rice, coffee, cashews, corn potatoes rubber, soybean and tea. Clothing, computers and electronics are a growing part of the economy as well. Tourism is the largest industry in the service sector.
In Vietnam land sales are not permitted. This is because of the communist rule, and the ownership of all land by the state. During the current economic reform to a market system of economy, household farms have replace the once popular collective farms. Land rights are guaranteed to the families for twenty years on farmland and fifty years for forestland. Though the farmers can still not own land they do have the right to use it, rent it, inherit it, and well as claim it as collateral.
The changing economy has caused the industrial and service sectors to steadily expand. With this increase, many are being dominated by state owned industries.
Along with the escalating change towards a market economy, competition within the private sector has also risen due to the fact that state owned enterprises are increasing as well. If these state owned enterprises were private then economic efficiency would be increased as well. This in turn would benefit the Vietnam economy and people. The government has instated rules so this can happen. They have also forced the state owned enterprises to be self- sufficient. They are now highly self-sufficient. They are self-run, determine what their production inputs and outputs are, and are responsible for the financing and accounting of their firm. Though they seem to be individual entities, the government still has a strong hold on them because the governments has complete ownership of the firm, even though there are shareholders.
With the institution of Doi Moi the economy of Vietnam has experienced a very strong growth. The past decade the Gross Domestic Product averaged 7.5%. Throughout the most recent years the growth has not been as severe but still positive. It was gaining strength as 2000 began but has been slowing down. There is still a positive growth but not as significant as in the mid 90s. See following chart for the Real GDP Growth in %.
Towards the end of the 90s many factors accounted for this slow down. Economics reforms were slowing as well. State owned enterprises and banks were becoming inefficient as well. This, along with a decrease in demand and consumption, a decrease in foreign and local investing, as well as a decrease in outputs all contributed to the slow down in economic growth. So, as this slow down became evident, changes needed were made in order to increase the GDP. In the year 2000, certain things happened which did in fact raise the growth in real GDP. The world economy was growing and manufacturing and commodity prices were improving as well. Along with a rapid growth in the industrial sector as well as the non-state sector Vietnam was able to recover from a slowing GDP growth quickly.
In order to accelerate the economic growth more and reduce the poverty, which seems to be plaguing the country, the Vietnam Government installed Doi Moi reforms. This process was accelerated by the collapse of the Soviet Union, formerly Vietnam's ... more
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The Cold War
Harry Truman was the 33rd President of the United States from about the end of World War 2 and from the beginning of the Cold War in 1945 until he retired in January, 1952.
Harry Truman was born in 1884, in Missouri. In April 1945 Truman assumed office as the President on the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
From the 16th of July to the 2nd of August the Potsdam conference was held in Potsdam, Berlin. Truman and Stalin and Churchill attended the conference until Churchill was beaten in an election by Atlee and replaced. Truman was worried about this encounter with Stalin as he was not very well informed on him, as Roosevelt had not involved him in political issues therefore he lacked the knowledge on how to handle Stalin. The main issue at the conference was on Germany. They established the principle occupations, which were to de-nazify,de-militerise, de-centeralise de-industrialise and democrasise all of Germany. Germany's reparations were decided. They also established that Germany's future would be jointly worked out, no separate development without consultation of forgien ministers.
Also at Potsdam the Polish borders were defined, and Russia agreed entry to the Pacific War.
Truman distrusted the Russians before the conference and by the end of the conference in August Truman had developed an even larger distrust towards Russia. He felt the Russians had been given too much at Yalta and he was adopting a harder attitude. He also felt that with the power he held with the Atomic bomb, USSR were under control. The relationship between the superpwers worsened considerably at Potsdam.
On the 6th of August 1945 Truman authorised an Atomic bomb to be dropped on Hiroshima, a city in Japan and another in Nagasaki, two days later, they caused horrendous damage, and many thousands of people died. After the bombs were dropped US troops occupied Japan not allowing any other forces in.
Truman had told Stalin little about the bomb, first informing him at Potsdam and when he authorised the drop, he had not consulted or warned Stalin, this angered him as he had wanted to gain some Japanese territory before the end of the war and the tension began to build.
The rise of two new "superpowers"developed after the war, the USA and the USSR, both wanting to be the more powerful nation. There was a rising tension between Truman and Stalin, as Truman had a different attitude to the USSR and Stalin than Roosevelt had previously.
Roosevelts ideas to give USSR a large post-war reconstruction loans, were dropped by Truman as he was not going to give USSR any economic assistance, as it was a threat to communist expansion.
Tension contiued to build through the rest of 1945. When Truman spoke to Molotov the Soviet foreign minister, he did not express any agreement with USSR in having a pro-communist government in Poland. Truman failed to see how important Poland was to USSR, leaving an increasingly angered Stalin.
1945 also saw the beginning of the arms race as USA held the only atomic bombs. In 1946 the USA proposed that the United Nations should assume control of atomic energy and research, but the USSR rejected the proposal on the grounds that this would enable the USA to maintain its monopoly over atomic weapons. America's sole possesion to the atomic bomb ended in 1949 when the USSR had developed their own atomic bomb.
1947 saw the beginning of the Truman doctrine, it's main aim was to assist countries which were threatened by commuist expansion. Truman sent a message to the US congress, pledging American support for 'free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures'. (dictionary of 20th centuary...). prompted by the need to give military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey, the Truman doctrine marked a change to positive anti-communism on the part of the administration.
On the 5th of June1947 General Marshall, offered American finiancial aid for a programme of European recovery, on a condition that the European countries themselves took the first steps towards economic collaboration. The plan was supprt by the west but the Russian foreign minister,Molotov rejected it. After long consulation the Western powers organised a conference for July '47, the OEEC ... more
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