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Laissez Faire





Laissez Faire:  Laissez-Faire- A French phrase originating among the
Physiocrats in the 18th century. Literally translated it means let do, and
has been applied to the principal of the free enterprise system, having come to
mean a hands-off policy by government with respect to business operation.
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[Category]:
History
[Paper Title]:
Laissez Faire
[Text]:
Laissez-Faire- A French phrase originating among the Physiocrats in the 18th
century. Literally translated it means let do, and has been applied to the
principal of the free enterprise system, having come to mean a hands-off policy
by government with respect to business operation. The doctrine presupposes the
existence of natural economic laws of thee market place which control the buying
and selling of commodities, and assumes the existence of unfettered competition.
Andrew Carnegie- (1835-1919), Industrialist and humanitarian. B. Dunfermline,
Scotland. Came to the United States (1848); settled in Allegheny, Pennsylvania.
Worked in cotton textile factory, telegraph company, and Pennsylvania Railroad;
served with the war department in transportation department during the Civil
War; became interested in steel (1873) gaining control of eight companies;
consolidated them into Carnegie Steel Company (1899); sold out to the United
States Steel (1901) for $250,000,000. Wrote The Gospel of Wealth which
appeared in the North American Review (June, 1899) and expressed his opinion
that wealth should be used for the benefit of all humanity. He established
public libraries, contributed to public education; established Carnegie
endowment for International Peace; left a fund of $125,000,000 to continue his
aid to mankind after his death.
John D. Rockefeller- (1839-1937), Oil magnate, capitalist, philanthropist. B.
New York. Moved to Cleveland, Ohio (1853); worked as bookkeeper, in produce
commission business and later in oil refinery; organized the standard oil
company (1870); gained a monopoly of the oil business (1882) with the formation
of the Standard Oil Trust; the trust was ordered dissolved by the courts (1892);
retired from leadership of company (1911); took part in organization of United
States Steel Corporation; had interest in railroads; established and endowed
Rockefeller Foundation, General Education Board, Rockefeller Institute for
Medical Research, University of Chicago, etc.
J.P. Morgan- (1837-1913), Financier. B. Connecticut. Educated in Europe;
served apprenticeship with representatives of his fathers firm in London and
New York (1856-60); member, Dabney, Morgan & Co. (1864-71) and Drexel,
Morgan & Co. (1871-93) which became J.P Morgan & Co. (1895); well known
for his government financing and his reorganization and purchase of large
railroad holdings; formed, organized the United States Steel Corporation (1901);
collector of rare books and at; president, Metropolitan Museum of Art, N.Y,;
endowed libraries; aided institutions and gave generously to charities.
Transcontinental Railroad- The first public proposal for such a line was made
by the New York City merchant Asa Whitney in 1844. At that time the United
States did not hold outright possession of land west of the Rockies, though it
exercised joint occupation of the Oregon Country until 1846, when under a treaty
with Britain it gained possession of the Pacific coast between the 42nd and 49th
parallels. Whitney's Railroad Convention proposed a line from the head of the
Great Lakes at Duluth, Minn., to the Oregon Country. The Mexican War, by adding
California, Arizona, and New Mexico to the American domain, complicated the
matter greatly. North-South sectionalism intruded when it was appreciated that
west of the Missouri any rail project would require a combination of federal and
private efforts, the American practice. In the hope of resolving the regional
conflict, the Corps of Topographic Engineers was authorized in 1854 to undertake
the Pacific Railroad Survey, which studied almost all the potential rail routes
in the West.
The survey on the 49th parallel was in the mid-1890s transformed into the
Great Northern Railway. A near neighbour, the 47th parallel survey, had in the
early 1880s been followed by the Northern Pacific Railway. The 41st parallel
survey, only a partial investigation, sketched the alignment on which was to be
built the first transcontinental railroad, the Union Pacific east of Great Salt
Lake and the Central Pacific west thereof. The 35th parallel route became the
Rock Island line from Memphis to Tucumcari, N.M., and westward from there the
Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway to Los Angeles. The southernmost route,
the 32nd parallel, was to run from Shreveport, La., across Texas and then,
through the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, to San Diego; this route became the
Southern Pacific line from Los Angeles to El Paso.
Construction began in 1862 of the 41st parallel route, which had been
selected to receive federal grants, but because of the outbreak of the Civil War
relatively little was accomplished ... more

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Reconstruction1

Reconstruction policies proved to be the seeds of failure in American race relations
in the 19th century.  Reconstruction demanded the Negroes freedom, their civil rights, the
opportunity for economic freedom, education and the right to vote.  This idea of Negro
equality was the most controversial aspect of radical reconstruction, and violence was one
of the means used to undermine Reconstruction.  Racism and violence have proved to be
interrelated factors in American society.  In the words of W.E.B. Du Bois The slave went
free; stood a brief moment in the sun; then moved back again toward slavery.  
The Southern whites ideology expressed certain propositions about the black man
in society.  The abolition of slavery ended the institution but not the system of beliefs,
assumptions, and values they held concerning the Negro.  Within the context of this white
supremacist ideology, racism flourished.  The black man was viewed as being part of a
caste system where they were relegated to the bottom of the social classes with no legal
In the movie The Birth of A Nation the director, D.W. Griffith, interprets the
social reality and justifying policies of the Southern white in the 19th century.  The tone of
the movie infers that blacks are inherently inferior and are incapable of appreciating the
freedom given to them.  We are introduced to images of  the contented slave working complacently in the field, to the freedman who has been corrupted by the Scallywags and Carpetbaggers, to the comic Negro in his clownish clothes, dancing and performing and to the vicious Negro renegade who attacks a white woman.  The contrast between the Negro and the Southern white is established not only by characterization but also by southern attitudes and mannerisms. Griffith is re-creating the southern ideal of what it meant to be part of a higher civilization with values and an outlook that shaped the souths history.  He pictures the well-dressed southern gentleman and lady, with their genteel manners and refined airs, as having the innate ability to appreciate the cotton flower in contrast to the downtrodden Negro worker in his shabby attire.  There are other racist images throughout the movie as we view a changed south, that now has Negro judges and juries and white defendants. We are shown state assemblies in which the black men have control and authority but they are portrayed as drunken, shoeless, ignorant buffoons.  It is here that we come to understand that new laws will be created to ensure the advancement and equality of the black race.  It is suggested that the black man would dare to pass laws that allow intermarriage between whites and blacks.  We learn that the
Southern girl, Elsie, is outraged when Silas Lynch, a mulatto, dares to propose marriage.
Silas Lynch becomes a symbol of his mulatto race.  To underscore such absurdity, her
father, a black sympathizer, becomes angered when he learns of the proposal thus
emphasizing the hypocrisy of the northern views. Racism is again reinforced when Cameron  meets Lynch for the first time and Cameron refuses to shake Lynchs hand because Lynch dares to consider himself an equal. There is also a confrontation on the street when a black man refuses to step aside for the white men to pass.  Even the old Colonel is arrested and paraded before his former slaves who spit and taunt him.  All these images project a South humiliated and degraded by Reconstruction.  The Southerner feels degradation over the new order and the new rebellion of the South begins.
Within the context of the South, beaten in war, where murder, disorganization and
military rule is the new order, violence becomes the answer. Violence was the direct result
of the Souths racist attitude and it was an integral part of the Southern landscape.
Sympathy is elicited for the Southern white when Piedmont, South Carolina is under
attack by a band of Negro militia and northern whites.  We see the Negro raiding and
burning homes, shooting whites and destroying the town without any just cause.
Self-preservation becomes the key to saving themselves and violence becomes the means
At the center of the resort to violence was a secret organization which served as a
kind of guerrilla force to restore white supremacy.  It was known as the Ku Klux Klan or
The Invisible Empire of the South. A social circle or kuklos of men organized the group
in ... more

colfax massacre

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  • C: Laissez Faire C: Laissez Faire Laissez Faire Laissez Faire: Laissez-Faire- A French phrase originating among the Physiocrats in the 18th century. Literally translated it means let do, and has been applied to the principal of the free enterprise system, having come to mean a hands-off policy by government with respect to business operation. -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- [Category]: History [Paper Title]: Laissez Faire [Text]: Laissez-Faire- A French phrase originating among the P...
  • O: Laissez Faire O: Laissez Faire Laissez Faire: Laissez-Faire- A French phrase originating among the Physiocrats in the 18th century. Literally translated it means let do, and has been applied to the principal of the free enterprise system, having come to mean a hands-off policy by government with respect to business operation. -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- * Copyright DueNow.com Inc. * [Category]: History [Paper Title]: Laissez Faire [Text]: Laissez-Faire- A French phrase origi...
  • L: Reconstruction1 L: Reconstruction1 Reconstruction1 Reconstruction policies proved to be the seeds of failure in American race relations in the 19th century. Reconstruction demanded the Negroes freedom, their civil rights, the opportunity for economic freedom, education and the right to vote. This idea of Negro equality was the most controversial aspect of radical reconstruction, and violence was one of the means used to undermine Reconstruction. Racism and violence have proved to be interrelated factors in American society. In th...
  • F: Laissez Faire F: Laissez Faire Laissez Faire [Category]: History [Paper Title]: Laissez Faire [Text]: Laissez-Faire- A French phrase originating among the Physiocrats in the 18th century. Literally translated it means let do, and has been applied to the principal of the free enterprise system, having come to mean a hands-off policy by government with respect to business operation. The doctrine presupposes the existence of natural economic laws of thee market place which control the buying and selling of commodities, and ass...
  • A: Reconstruction A: Reconstruction Reconstruction John Paul Figaro History Professor Gary Reconstruction Paper Reconstruction policies proved to be the seeds of failure in American race relations in the 19th century. Reconstruction demanded the Negroes freedom, their civil rights, the opportunity for economic freedom, education and the right to vote. This idea of Negro equality was the most controversial aspect of radical reconstruction, and violence was one of the means used to undermine Reconstruction. Racism and violence have ...
  • X: Laissez Faire X: Laissez Faire Laissez Faire Laissez-Faire- A French phrase originating among the Physiocrats in the 18th century. Literally translated it means let do, and has been applied to the principal of the free enterprise system, having come to mean a hands-off policy by government with respect to business operation. The doctrine presupposes the existence of natural economic laws of thee market place which control the buying and selling of commodities, and assumes the existence of unfettered competition. Andrew Carn...
  •  : Reconstruction : Reconstruction Reconstruction John Paul Figaro History Professor Gary Reconstruction Paper Reconstruction policies proved to be the seeds of failure in American race relations in the 19th century. Reconstruction demanded the Negroes freedom, their civil rights, the opportunity for economic freedom, education and the right to vote. This idea of Negro equality was the most controversial aspect of radical reconstruction, and violence was one of the means used to undermine Reconstruction. Racism and violence have ...
  • M: Laissez Faire M: Laissez Faire Laissez Faire Laissez Faire: Laissez-Faire- A French phrase originating among the Physiocrats in the 18th century. Literally translated it means let do, and has been applied to the principal of the free enterprise system, having come to mean a hands-off policy by government with respect to business operation. -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- [Category]: History [Paper Title]: Laissez Faire [Text]: Laissez-Faire- A French phrase originating among the P...
  • A: Laissez Faire A: Laissez Faire Laissez Faire: Laissez-Faire- A French phrase originating among the Physiocrats in the 18th century. Literally translated it means let do, and has been applied to the principal of the free enterprise system, having come to mean a hands-off policy by government with respect to business operation. -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- * Copyright DueNow.com Inc. * [Category]: History [Paper Title]: Laissez Faire [Text]: Laissez-Faire- A French phrase origi...
  • S: Reconstruction1 S: Reconstruction1 Reconstruction1 Reconstruction policies proved to be the seeds of failure in American race relations in the 19th century. Reconstruction demanded the Negroes freedom, their civil rights, the opportunity for economic freedom, education and the right to vote. This idea of Negro equality was the most controversial aspect of radical reconstruction, and violence was one of the means used to undermine Reconstruction. Racism and violence have proved to be interrelated factors in American society. In th...
  • S: Laissez Faire S: Laissez Faire Laissez Faire [Category]: History [Paper Title]: Laissez Faire [Text]: Laissez-Faire- A French phrase originating among the Physiocrats in the 18th century. Literally translated it means let do, and has been applied to the principal of the free enterprise system, having come to mean a hands-off policy by government with respect to business operation. The doctrine presupposes the existence of natural economic laws of thee market place which control the buying and selling of commodities, and ass...
  • A: Reconstruction A: Reconstruction Reconstruction John Paul Figaro History Professor Gary Reconstruction Paper Reconstruction policies proved to be the seeds of failure in American race relations in the 19th century. Reconstruction demanded the Negroes freedom, their civil rights, the opportunity for economic freedom, education and the right to vote. This idea of Negro equality was the most controversial aspect of radical reconstruction, and violence was one of the means used to undermine Reconstruction. Racism and violence have ...
  • C: Laissez Faire C: Laissez Faire Laissez Faire Laissez-Faire- A French phrase originating among the Physiocrats in the 18th century. Literally translated it means let do, and has been applied to the principal of the free enterprise system, having come to mean a hands-off policy by government with respect to business operation. The doctrine presupposes the existence of natural economic laws of thee market place which control the buying and selling of commodities, and assumes the existence of unfettered competition. Andrew Carn...
  • R: Reconstruction R: Reconstruction Reconstruction John Paul Figaro History Professor Gary Reconstruction Paper Reconstruction policies proved to be the seeds of failure in American race relations in the 19th century. Reconstruction demanded the Negroes freedom, their civil rights, the opportunity for economic freedom, education and the right to vote. This idea of Negro equality was the most controversial aspect of radical reconstruction, and violence was one of the means used to undermine Reconstruction. Racism and violence have ...