Cognitive Behavioral Therapy


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cognitive behavioral therapy Psyschology Study on Drinking




In response to the need for research that incorporates multiple aspects of theory into a testable framework, this study attempted to replicate and extend the results of Cooper, Russell, Skinner, Frone, and Mudar (1992). A modified stressor vulnerability model of stress-related drinking was tested in a homogeneous sample of 65 male and female undergraduate student drinkers. Total weekly consumption of alcohol was used as the criterion measure, whereas family history of alcoholism (Adapted SMAST: Sher & Descutner, 1986), alcohol outcome expectancies/valences (CEOA: Fromme, Stroot, & Kaplan, 1993), perceived stress (PSS: Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983), and coping dispositions (COPE: Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989) were used as the predictor variables. The proposed modified model postulates that expectancies play a proximal mediating role in stress-related drinking, whereas gender, family history
of alcoholism, and coping all play a distal moderating role. Hierarchical multiple regression procedures were then performed to evaluate the model. The results failed to support the hypothesized model. Specifically, expectancies emerged as a distal rather than proximal predictor of stress-related drinking, and family history of alcoholism did not moderate stress-related drinking. In contrast, gender and coping styles emerged as the most powerful predictors in the model. Despite the shortcomings of the proposed model, the present results offer an alternative interpretation as to what constitutes the stressor vulnerability model of stress-related drinking.
Stress as a Causal Factor in Drinking
One of the common stereotypes about the effects of alcohol involves the drug's capacity to act as a stress antagonist. Conger (1956) has proposed a theory, known as the tension reduction hypothesis (TRH) of drinking, to support this notion. Essentially the theory holds that alcohol's sedative action on the central nervous system serves to reduce tension, and because tension reduction is reinforcing, people drink to escape it (Marlatt & Rohsenow, 1980). Strong evidence to support the validity of the theory comes from epidemiological findings which indicate that the prevalence of anxiety disorders in alcoholics ranges from 16 to 37%, compared to a rate of only 4-5% in the general population (Welte, 1985). Notwithstanding, there seems to be a subset of people for whom the predictions of the TRH do not hold. For instance, in a study conducted by Conway, Vickers, Ward, and Rahe (1981) it was found that the consumption of alcohol among Navy officers during periods of high job demands was actually lower than the consumption during low-demand periods. In addition, other studies (i.e., Mayfield, 1968; Mendlson, Ladou, & Soloman, 1964) have shown that some drinkers actually consider alcohol as a tension generator rather than a tension reducer. Overall, when taking into account these conflicting findings, it seems prudent to find some middle ground. The solution to this problem than is a modified version of the TRH, specifying the conditions under which stress will lead to an increase in drinking. Moderating and Mediating Factors in Stress Induced Drinking.  In addition to stress, several other variables have been shown to be crucial in determining an individual's drinking behavior. These variables include gender of drinker (gender), coping behavior of drinker (coping), and alcohol outcome expectancies of drinker (expectancies). In the following discussion, the importance of each of these variables to drinking will be considered first, followed by an evaluation of these as potential moderators or mediators of stress in drinking.
Differential Gender Drinking Behavior
It has been repeatedly demonstrated that significant differences exist between the drinking patterns of men and women (Hilton, 1988). In a comprehensive survey of US drinking habits conducted by the US National Center for Health Statistics in 1988, significant gender differences were found in three areas as pointed out by Dawson and Archer (1992). The first significant difference pertained to the number of male and female current drinkers. Roughly 64% of all men were current drinkers in comparison to 41% of all women. The second and third significant differences concerned the quantity of alcohol consumed. Men were more likely to (a) consume alcohol on a daily basis and (b) be classified as heavy drinkers. Men's daily average of ethanol intake (17.5 grams per day) was almost twice as high as women's (8.9 grams per day). Even when an adjustment for body weight was made (females require less ... more

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       Battered Women's Syndrome: A Survey of Contemporary Theories  Domestic Violence November 16, 1996           In 1991, Governor William Weld modified parole regulations and permitted women to seek commutation if they could present evidence indicating they suffered from battered women's syndrome.   A short while later, the Governor, citing spousal abuse as his impetus, released seven women convicted of killing their husbands, and the Great and General Court of Massachusetts enacted Mass. Gen. L. ch. 233 23E (1993), which permits the introduction of evidence of abuse in criminal trials.  These decisive acts brought the issue of domestic abuse to the public's attention and left many Massachusetts residents, lawyers and judges struggling to define battered women's syndrome.  In order to help these individuals define battered women's syndrome, the origins and development of the three primary theories of the syndrome and recommended treatments are outlined below.                               I. The Classical Theory of Battered Women's Syndrome and its Origins          The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), known in the  mental health field as the clinician's bible, does not recognize battered women's syndrome as a  distinct mental disorder.  In fact, Dr. Lenore Walker, the architect of the classical battered women's syndrome theory, notes the syndrome is not an illness, but a theory that draws upon the principles of learned helplessness to explain why some women are unable to leave their abusers.  Therefore, the classical battered women's syndrome theory is best regarded as an offshoot of the theory of learned helplessness and not a mental illness that afflicts abused women.         The theory of learned helplessness sought to account for the passive behavior subjects exhibited when placed in an uncontrollable environment.  In the late 60's and early 70's, Martin Seligman, a famous researcher in the field of psychology, conducted a series of experiments in which dogs were placed in one of two types of cages. In the former cage, henceforth referred to as the shock cage, a bell would sound and the experimenters would electrify the entire floor seconds later, shocking the dog regardless of location.  The latter cage, however, although similar in every other respect to the shock cage, contained a small area where the experimenters could administer no shock.  Seligman observed that while the dogs in the latter cage learned to run to the nonelectrified area after a series of shocks, the dogs in the shock cage gave up trying to escape, even when placed in the latter cage and shown that escape was possible.  Seligman theorized that the dogs' initial experience in the uncontrollable shock cage led them to believe that they could not control future events and was responsible for the observed disruptions in behavior and learning.  Thus, according to the theory of learned helplessness, a subject placed in an uncontrollable environment will become passive and accept painful stimuli, even though escape is possible and apparent.         In the late 1970's, Dr. Walker drew upon Seligman's research and incorporated it into her own theory, the battered women's syndrome, in an attempt to explain why battered women remain with their abusers.  According to Dr. Walker, battered women's syndrome contains two distinct elements: a cycle of violence and symptoms of learned helplessness.  The cycle of violence is composed of three phases: the tension building phase, active battering phase and calm loving respite phase.  During the tension building phase, the victim is subjected to verbal abuse and minor battering incidents, such as slaps, pinches and psychological abuse.  In this phase, the woman tries to pacify her batterer by using techniques that have worked previously.  Typically, the woman showers her abuser with kindness or attempts to avoid him.  However, the victim's attempts to pacify her batter are often fruitless and only work to delay the inevitable acute battering incident.         The tension building phase ends and the active battering phase begins when the verbal abuse and minor battering evolve into an acute battering incident.  A release of the tensions built during phase one characterizes the active battering phase, which usually last for a period of two to twenty-four hours.  The violence during this phase is unpredictable and inevitable, and statistics indicate that the risk of the batterer murdering his victim is at its greatest.  The batterer places his victim in ... more

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  • C: DYSTHYMIC DISORDER C: DYSTHYMIC DISORDER DYSTHYMIC DISORDER DYSTHYMIC DISORDER & BRIEF THERAPY DEPRESSION v Mild, chronic depression has probably existed as long as the human condition, although it has been referred to by various different names. The DSM-III replaced the term neurotic depression with dysthymic disorder--which literally means ill-humored-and it was added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 1980 v Dysthymic disorder, also called dysthymia, is a type of depression involving long-term ...
  • O: Psyschology Study on Drinking O: Psyschology Study on Drinking Psyschology Study on Drinking In response to the need for research that incorporates multiple aspects of theory into a testable framework, this study attempted to replicate and extend the results of Cooper, Russell, Skinner, Frone, and Mudar (1992). A modified stressor vulnerability model of stress-related drinking was tested in a homogeneous sample of 65 male and female undergraduate student drinkers. Total weekly consumption of alcohol was used as the criterion measure, whereas family history ...
  • G: Battered Womens Syndrome: A Survey of Contemporar G: Battered Womens Syndrome: A Survey of Contemporar Battered Women\'s Syndrome: A Survey of Contemporary Theories Domestic Violence November 16, 1996 In 1991, Governor William Weld modified parole regulations and permitted women to seek commutation if they could present evidence indicating they suffered from battered women\'s syndrome. A short while later, the Governor, citing spousal abuse as his impetus, released seven women convicted of killing their husbands, and the Great and General Court of Massachusetts enacted Mass. Gen. L. ch. 233 23E...
  • N: Behavior Modification N: Behavior Modification Behavior Modification Behavior Modification, a psychological theory of human behavior. It evolved from the application of experimentally derived principles of learning to the modification of problem behaviors. The theory is based on a psychological model of human behavior that rejects the psychoanalytic or quasi-disease model of mental illness. Approaches to behavior modification assume that abnormal behavior is acquired and maintained in the same manner as normal behavior and can be changed dir...
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  •  : Theorectical Bases For Counseling : Theorectical Bases For Counseling Theorectical Bases For Counseling Five major theoretical bases for counseling in psychology are biological, learning, cognitive, psychodynamic, and sociocultural. Each one of these perspectives searches for answers about behavior through different techniques and researching a clients childhood or adult life experiences looking for answers to different kinds of questions. Due to the different types and styles of counseling approaches, each counselor forms their own thoughts and explanations. The ...
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  • A: Theories of Knowledge and Psychological Applicatio A: Theories of Knowledge and Psychological Applicatio Theories of Knowledge and Psychological Applications Robin A. Finlayson University of Saskatchewan Ed.Psy: 855.3: Advanced Educational Psychology October 16, 1996 How individuals are able to obtain knowledge is something that psychologists have studied for a number of years. The ability to store and retrieve knowledge provides individuals with the propensity to form logical thought, express emotions and internalize the world around them. In order for a psychologist to understand the theories of ...
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  • I: Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Schizophrenia I: Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Schizophrenia Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Schizophrenia Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Schizophrenia Psychosocial rehabilitation is a learning based approach using a token economy and social skill training to help patients with schizophrenia develop adaptive behaviors (Nevid, Rathus, Green, 2003). To live successfully in the community, a variety of treatment approaches are available to people with schizophrenia. A few of the psychosocial rehabilitation options for people with schizophrenia include hospit...
  • O: DYSTHYMIC DISORDER O: DYSTHYMIC DISORDER DYSTHYMIC DISORDER DYSTHYMIC DISORDER BRIEF THERAPY DEPRESSION #61558; Mild, chronic depression has probably existed as long as the human condition, although it has been referred to by various different names. The DSM-III replaced the term neurotic depression with dysthymic disorder--which literally means ill-humored\'-and it was added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 1980 #61558; Dysthymic disorder, also called dysthymia, is a type of depression involving long-...
  • R: Tourette Syndrome1 R: Tourette Syndrome1 Tourette Syndrome1 When I breathe, it breathes. When I speak, it speaks. When I try to sleep, it wont let me. Whatever I attempt to do, its there, waiting to spoil the moment. To a doctor, its a disorder, a medical oddity. To an onlooker, its a spectacleperhaps humorous, perhaps grotesque. To me, its a monster, a demon, a hellish beast who has no right to exist in my world or anyone elsesits my unwelcome companion, wrote Rick Fowler, a sufferer of Tourette syndrome. In a recent film, ...
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  •  : Bulimia Nervosa : Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa has begun to be recognized in the last 30 years as a serious psychological disorder, primarily affecting women. The essential features are binge eating, which may or may not co-occur with inappropriate means of weight gain prevention. Bulimia, as well as eating disorders in general are the result of biological psychological and psychosocial factors. Urges to overeat, gorge or purge may arise as a backlash to dieting or fasting, but often as a dead-end coping mecha...
  • T: Post-Traumatic Stress In Relation To Holden Caulfi T: Post-Traumatic Stress In Relation To Holden Caulfi Post-Traumatic Stress In Relation To Holden Caulfield Post-Traumatic Stress In Relation To Holden Caulfield Introduction Throughout life, an individual may endure emotionally and physically straining moments causing the person to become downhearted, and or irate. These feelings are normal, but may however become a problem when these feelings prohibit someone from living a normal life. An estimated 5.2 million American adults ages 18 to 54, or approximately 3.6 percent of people in this age...
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  • E: Battered Womens Syndrome E: Battered Womens Syndrome Battered Women\'s Syndrome In 1991, Governor William Weld modified parole regulations and permitted women to seek commutation if they could present evidence indicating they suffered from battered women\'s syndrome. A short while later, the Governor, citing spousal abuse as his impetus, released seven women convicted of killing their husbands, and the Great and General Court of Massachusetts enacted Mass. Gen. L. ch. 233 23E (1993), which permits the introduction of evidence of abuse in crimina...
  • R: Five year old Danny is in kindergarten. It is play R: Five year old Danny is in kindergarten. It is play add Five year old Danny is in kindergarten. It is playtime and he hops from chair to chair, swinging his arms and legs restlessly, and then begins to fiddle with the light switches, turning the lights on and off again to everyone\'s annoyance--all the while talking nonstop. When his teacher encourages him to join a group of other children busy in the playroom, Danny interrupts a game that was already in progress and takes over, causing the other children to complain of his bossiness and drift aw...